Wednesday, July 31, 2019

The Contemporary International System

The Contemporary International System The structure of the contemporary international system involves many different factors that influence how the world operates today. The international system is defined as the study of the interactions among the various actors that participate in international politics, including states, international organizations, nongovernmental organizations, sub-national entities, and individuals. The study of international relations aims to evaluate how countries interact within the political and social international system.Factors such as, technological change, shifts of national power and various changes in the environment influence today’s system and how we live on a day-to-day basis. History is another factor that must be recognized in the shaping of the world system. Events that occurred in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries have a great impact today, as we are able to make future projections based on historical trends. The operation and stru cture of the international system involves various social and political factors that shape the world we live in today.The shaping of the contemporary system was achieved through the concept of globalization. This idea is often referred to as the â€Å"shrinkage of the world† and has been made possible through the advancement in modern technology. Globalization is the process by which regional economies, societies, and cultures have become integrated through an international network of political ideas. Today, a nation’s technological capability is the main indicator of its power. Technology directly affects a nation’s economic growth though innovation.This growth then allows that country to produce military weapons for protection and could potentially throw off the balance of power between states. Technology and innovation can also determine a nation’s trade capacity, which can limit the amount a country can import and export. A nation with great trade cap abilities will experience international financial flows into their country, thus stimulating economic growth. Technology provides a framework for both the relative and absolute power between states and greatly impacts the structure of the international system.For example, if we evaluate the correlation of power and technology throughout history, we see that the United States and Germany experienced dramatic changes in their global position following the second industrial revolution, just as Great Britain had following the first industrial revolution. These powers have since failed to maintain their place at the forefront of technological innovation, and have faded from the international scene. Countries like Japan have been very technologically advanced for the last 50 years and have moved to the forefront of the international scene.The global scene that was once dominated by the United States, may have a new power due to Japan’s vast technological and innovative capabilities . Businesses have also globalized, as they are now able to interact with companies overseas with the click of a button. Since travel has become â€Å"easy† businesses are now able to meet face to face with their international partners on a regular basis. There are proper customs that people must follow when engaging in foreign business practices. For example, the exchange of business cards is a formal practice in countries like China and Japan.Foreign business associates may see it as a sign of disrespect if one is not educated on the proper customs of that country. The structure and operation of the international system is also influenced by the behaviors of the actors within that system. For centuries, the idea of the â€Å"state† was centered upon the idea of inclusion and exclusion. This idea became the centerpiece of national politics for centuries and is a major reason for conflicts within the system. After the French Revolution these states were formed on the th ree ideologies of realism, liberalism, and idealism.Karen Mingst and Jack Snyder define these ideologies and explain the assumptions behind the weaknesses that lead to misguided policies. Realism instills an appreciation of the role of power but warns that states will suffer if they overreach. The cooperation among states is a way to maximize each individual state’s security and often calls for â€Å"backing† during times of conflict. World War II resembles a realist idea as each state was drawn to fight to maximize its own security. Liberalism identifies the potential for democracies, but also notes that democracies can lead to tyrannies and the threat of a violent collapse.This arose after World War I in response to the inability to control and limit war within the international system. Lastly, Idealism stresses that a state’s values must reinforce any stable political order but recognizes that there is also a potential for conflict. Together these three persp ectives form the core of the contemporary international system. In order to fully understand the contemporary international system, we must first understand the historical trends in the state and international system.International Relations can be traced back to the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 where the modern state system was developed. This instituted the concept of sovereignty, which is defined as absolute and perpetual power invested in a commonwealth. This power does not exist in an individual, but in a state. In this, the leaders are limited by divine law and are â€Å"subject to the laws of God and nature. † This belief is still held today and believers attribute the legitimacy of the state to the consent of the people. After all, the â€Å"people† are the fundamental the source of all political power.In conclusion, the contemporary international system was shaped on the basis of globalization, the behaviors of the actors within the international system, and the evaluation of historical patterns. The world is constantly changing and evolving toward a more connected population. The widespread use of social media and continued advances in technology allow the population to connect with each other as if they were sitting in the same room. As we move toward this new era, we must identify these historical patterns in order to further improve our future international relations.

Animals’ Roles in The Wars Essay

Written by Timothy Findley in 1977, The Wars is a novel that explores the theme of young human life under the pressing concerns during the war, specifically the First World War, seeing the world of soldiers turn into a world of violence, and how these soldiers have turned into brutes themselves. The character of Robert Ross, a nineteen year-old Canadian officer and whose life is narrated mostly from the third-person point of view, is revealed as a character that has a concern for animals—thus prompting Ross to save the horses which cost him his life in the end—amidst the brutal turn of events where death was almost certain in the killing fields. The birds, coyote and rabbits also symbolize certain events in the story.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Soldiers are typically known to be highly sensitive of their surroundings when in the fields for they cannot exactly pinpoint where and when combat might ensue or from what direction the enemy might be coming from. This is perhaps one of the reasons why Ross was able to notice the chirping of the birds while he and the rest of the soldiers were out in the war. Ross was able to take notice of the fact that each time the birds stopped singing, an attack from the enemy soon takes place. Perhaps it was mere coincidence, although one can strongly tie that event with the attacks that followed thereafter as birds are familiar with their environment more than the soldiers; slight changes in their environment, especially changes which have a lot to do with probable dangers; cause the birds to fly away. Taken with the context of the encounters of Ross with the birds, it can be said that those birds served as warning signs for the young soldier. Whenever the birds stopped singing, it is almost certain that Ross is about to encounter danger along the way. â€Å"The birds, being gone, had taken some mysterious presence with them (p. 81),† showing how the sudden absence of these birds felt rather unusual, as if to signal something bad is about to happen.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   It is unusual as well for man and beast to have a close relationship, especially when the animal is known to be a hunter and can be a threat to the security of man. But more than that, any relationship between man and beast can mean simple companionship to a deep friendship. As far as Ross and the coyote are concerned, it can be said that the animal accompanied the young soldier to a certain extent in the story. â€Å"One night, Robert ran with a coyote (p. 25)† and when the men were out for a drink the coyote also â€Å"drunk at the brink (p. 27)† of the water â€Å"and suddenly sat (p. 28).† An observation of these rather unusual events would tell us that the coyote acted as if it was a member of the soldiers. This is interesting as it presents a revealing irony one can not easily notice; soldiers in the war, as Ross himself has observed, are violent men who are more like beasts who wielded weapons to kill. With the presence of the coyote among the group, it can be said that they, too, were much like the coyote. The soldiers, in fact, â€Å"gathered like whispering conspirators around the edges of a bright sheet of water (p. 27),† a sly trait typical to that of coyotes.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   While coyotes symbolize how men in the war have turned into beasts, rabbits on the other hand serve as reminders for Ross to treat animals in general with respect as if they were human beings. On one occasion, Ross was hesitant to kill the rabbits as ordered by his estranged mother, Mrs. Ross, shortly after the death of Rowena, Robert’s older sister, since they gave him memories about his older sister and since Rowena owned those rabbits. â€Å"Rabbits had to die, and Robert had to do it (p. 18),† which presents one conflict in the novel—the conflict between the command to destroy the animals which pin back memories and the apparent weakness of the main protagonist to kill even animals. It can be said that if Ross decides to kill the rabbits, it was like as if he has killed the memories of Rowena. If he decides not to kill them, it proves that he is unable to even wield a weapon against these small animals, which is of course not a good sign for someone who would enlist in the army during the war. It also shows how Ross was more human than anybody else in the story, especially his estranged mother and the rest of the soldiers in his group. His inclination to preserve whatever memory remains from the departed tells us that Ross is not keen to destroy, or that he is not a natural â€Å"destroyer† of animal life which, ironically, cost him his life as he tried to save some of the Army horses after killing two of his fellow soldiers.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The point where Ross tries to save the Army horses was also the time when he finally turned to madness and prompted him to kill the lives of his fellowmen. Apparently, it is a contrast which tells us that insanity can push a person to kill other people yet care for beasts. That is because Ross himself has finally become a beast near the end of the story and, thus, he is now more than inclined to save his own kind rather than protect and preserve the life of other men. He is no longer the same man at the start of the story who was afraid to kill. This transformation can be attributed to the onslaught of the war, which seemed to have absorbed Robert right into it. As he was now unable to rise above the madness of the war, Robert Ross eventually turned quite like the rest of the army, willing to kill and die just so to save other lives although this time he saved the lives of horses.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The animals in the story offer an interesting insight into some important events in the novel, especially in terms of how the life of the protagonist, Robert Ross, always hanged in the balance of making crucial decisions. In general, the story is able to reveal how the lives of soldiers always deal with certain conflicts individually and together as a group. Findley’s novel is also able to show how young minds of young individuals tend to fold under pressing moments in their lives. Reference Findley, T. (1996). The Wars. Penguin: Canada.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Explain the Decision Making Process with Example of Your Own

EXPLAIN THE DECISION MAKING PROCESS WITH EXAMPLE OF YOUR OWN. Introduction:- Decision making is an integral part of the most of the top manager's duties. Not even a single day passes without taking decisions particularly in modern organisations. Hence, management and decision ­ making are considered as inseparable. In fact, whatever a manager does, he can do it only by taking some decision. All matters related to planning, organization, staffing, directing and controlling are engrossed in decision making process. That is why it is aptly pointed out that management is essentially a decision-making process.The survival and future success of any enterprise is directly related to the ability to take timely and appropriate decision by the executives. Thus decision-making is said to be the heart of management. Lot of planning exercise is to be initiated by the manager before taking any viable decision. The manager has to carefully plan and decide what to do or what not to do. Wrong decis ions quite often are proved to be either costly or futile. To prevent such losses, decision-making process remains to be the core are in all planned activities of the modern corporations. The selection from among alternatives of a course of action†, according to this definition, picking one course of action among alternatives available is termed as decision-making as per Koontz and Weinrich. In the words of George Terry,†decision-making is the selection of a particular course of action, based on some criteria, from two or more possible alternatives. † We can define this concept also as the process of choosing between various alternatives for achieving a specified goal. Every decision must take into consideration needs and future uncertainties.As per Herbert Simon there are three major steps in the decision making process. Decision making is about choosing from several options or ideas and taking action to generate a particular result. It is usually considered to be a rational and logical thinking process. J>Recognition and understanding of the problem. J>Various alternatives may be developed. J>careful assessment of alternatives available for taking a better decisions. Characteristics J>Decision making is a continuous process. J>The question of decision-making process must always be rational when there are alternatives.J>A decision-making process must always be rational and purposeful. J>Decision making is an intellectual process supported by good reasoning and sound judgment. J>Decision making is all pervasive in the sense that all levels of managers need to take decisions of varied nature. J>Decision-making is always related to future only. Troes of Decisions: Managerial decision may be classified into two categories, the first category includes the typical, routine and unimportant decisions and the second category covers most important, vital and strategic decisions.Apart from decisions are taken at different levels for meeting different p roblems. Oraanisational Vs Personnel Decisions:- As explained by Chester. I. Bernard, the decisions taken by the manager in his official capacity are termed as Organisational decisions. These decisions have a direct bearing on the functioning of the firm. Decision relating to reward systems or transfer of workers can be cited as examples under this category. In contrast to this, some times, decisions may be taken by the manager in his individual capacity and such decisions are termed as personal decisions.They may partly affect the personal life and partly affect the organization. Example,decision to quit the organization comes under this category. Routine Vs Strategic Decision:- Routine decisions involve little risk and uncertainty. Hence, they do not call for extraordinary judgement and thinking. They are mostly related day-to-day conduct of the business and taken repetitively. That's why they are normally taken at lower levels of management. On the other hand strategic decisions are taken by the top level management. Either they are concerned with policy matters or with long-term commitments of the organization.They require thorough understanding, analysis and best judgement, pertaining to location of the plant, type of technology and channel of distribution are the best examples of this type. Policy Vs Operating Decisions:- Policy acts as guidelines for future action. Hence,decisions pertaining to policies are usually taken by the top management. They are considered to be very important since they affect the total organization. While operating decisions are administrative in character, they help in translating policies into action.Decisions relating to a new incentive scheme may be termed as a policy decision. Decisions relating to the methodology of implementation of such incentive scheme are termed as operating decisions. Programmed Vs Non-Programmed decisions:- Programmed decisions usually deals with routine and repetitive problems. For dealing such pro blems, systematic policies, procedures and rules are established. Programmed decisions can be taken with little ease as everything goes according to some set of rules. But Non-Programmed decisions cover mainly unexpected events and challenges.In other words, each problem is unique in nature. For dealing with such special problems, executives usually refer them to the top management, tackling such situations , the manager needs expertise,intuition and creative thinking. Individual Vs Group decisions:- Decisions taken by the individual in his personal capacity are known as individual decisions. Organisations which are small in size can accommodate this type of decision-making process. When organizations grow in size and stature, complex problems do come into picture.Group decisions are considered to be the best under such situations. Group decisions represent the thinking of more than one executive. The various steps involved in the decision-making process are as explained below:- Ste p 1 – Defining the oroblem The first step is to define the real problem, money and efforts are going to be wasted if the problem is not determined correctly. That' s why, accurate diagnosis of the real problem is necessary to find out right solution. We should look at the real causes and for the remedial measures by knowing the inner details of the problem.Knowing only the outer surface of the problem and arriving at decisions may lead to fallacious conclusions. SteP 2- AnalYSing the Problem Once the problem is clearly defined, then, it must be analysed in the light of data pertaining to various factors that surmount the decision. Every situation may have some advantages and limitations. Necessary steps should be laid on locating the limitations and obstacles in achieving the desired result. Necessary care should be exercised in avoiding personalized bias in judging the certain factors. Analysis of crucial factors provides a sound basis for making effective decisions.Step 3- Developing alternatives The analysis of the problem becomes complete once it throws light on several alternative solutions. In fact, the success of decision-making process depends upon the ability of an executive in developing alternative solutions to a given problem. This requires lot of imagination, experience and judgement. Exploring the positive or negative impact of such alternatives forms as a solid base for sound decisions. Step 4- Evaluating alternative Once the alternatives are developed , the next step is to evaluate them in terms of their cause, time , impact and objectives etc.Many a time, either marginal cost or cost-benefit analysis is used to bring out the tangible benefits of each of such alternatives. Each alternative solution may have its own merits and de-merits. They should be compared with other alternatives for the purpose of appraising the real impact. As per Mr. Peter F Drucker, the important criteria for evaluating the consequences of different alternatives are risk,economy, time and limitations. Steo 5- Selecting the best possible solution Selection usually involves choice making. It is the last step in decision-making process.The manager has to select such an alternative course of action which can make the maximum contribution to the goal. It is not always possible to select the best alternative for a given problem. That is why the manger has to rely upon such course of action which can yield good results under a given set of circumstances and limitations. Step 6- Imolementing the decision Once the best alternative is selected, it must be implemented. This step mainly deals with the execution of the decision taken. It involves development of step by step plans, selling the idea to sub-ordinates and seeking co-operation from the needy people.At this stage, the decision is converted into action. The decision must be implemented in the right time and that too in a proper way. Step 7- Evaluation of Decisions The last step in decision-mak ing process is evaluation. The actual results of the decision should be compared with the expected results in order to locate the reasons for deviations. This review is a continuous process and it generates information for necessary feedback for further improving the decision-making process in future. Rationality in decision-making Rationality refers to objective and intelligent action.A decision is said to be rational if appropriate means are chosen to accomplish desired objectives. It implies that decision-maker tries to maximize the values in a given situation by choosing the most suitable course of action. A good decision depends on the makers being consciously aware of the factors that set the stage for the decision. Obtaining complete rationality is not always possible. That is the reason why people prefer to take satisfactory decisions instead of ideal or optimum decisions. Managers are not always confronted by the problem of rationality in decision-making.In practice, they c onfine themselves to few important alternatives which have limited risks combined with favourable consequences. Limits of Rational Decision making Managers are not always rational in their decision-making. They cannot always abide by the demands of rationality in decision-making process. There are some limitations to that and of which are as explained below. Since decisions are related to future, Managers cannot foresee all the consequences accurately. Moreover, lack of complete knowledge about the problem also makes it impossible to choose a good decision.Due to time and cost constraints, all complex variables that have a bearing on decision cannot be examined fully. Hence, the decision maker is forced to strike a balance between complete rationality and hard realities on the ground. The impact of all the variables cannot be ascertained because some of them are intangible. The consequences of various alternatives cannot be anticipated accurately. Hence, decisions taken under uncert ainty cannot guarantee the success of decision-making process. The Human factors like value systems, perceptions, social factors, institution etc. are the main limits on rational decision-making. Managers, being human beings, are greatly influenced by their personal beliefs, attitudes and biases. Because of this, the capacity of a decision-making process varies from individual to individual and from situation to situation. Every manger is vitally concerned with the above limitations in his approach to rational decision-making. He has to collect all the relevant information and try to overcome the above limits on rationality and choose the most rational decision for solving any given problem. Ba†iers of Effective Decision MakingApart from the above limitations, decision-making process remains to be ineffective because of the existence of various barriers in organization structure. These barriers impede the process of identification of problems. It's analysis and the development of the solutions. The following are the important barriers that can block managerial effectiveness in choosing the most suitable decision as per Elbing. The tendency of a human-being to evaluate a given problem with pre-conceived notions, act as a stumbling block in understanding the real situation.Though it's dangerous, managers feel safer if they do not change what is familiar. Eventually, the ineffective decision of a familiar way becomes accepted rather than considering new and innovative means. Many managers fail to demarcate the symptoms from the main problem. Many mangers have a tendency to respond to the problem instantaneously without proper infonmation and thinking. If they gather more infonnation, they become rather than what is unique in new problem. The above problems are mainly responsible for either indecision or for half decision in the modern organizations.Knowledge of the above problems will surely help the managers in arriving at pragmatic decisions. The followin g suggestions can be offered to overcome the above barriers so as to make the managers more effective in decision-making process. Avoid premature evaluation. Initiate impartial probing by avoiding personal biases on the outcome. Develop a sound system that can supply adequate information for making decisions. Encourage group leaders to respond to a given situation and compare the pros and cons of the solutions offered by the two groups for making an effective decision.Encourage innovative thinking among the sub-ordinates so as to identify the crux of the problem without waste of time and money. When decisions of critical and pivotal in nature are to be taken, encourage group thinking. For this, the problem is to be presented to the sub-ordinates first and they are asked to develop as many solutions as possible in a free environment. Techniques of Decision -making Brainstorming:- Brainstorming is the oldest and widely followed technique for encouraging creative thinking. It was origi nally developed by A. F. Osbom. It involves the use of a group.This is an approach to improve problem discovery and solving by encouraging sub-ordinates to give their ideas and solutions in a free environment, they will generate creative ideas. Continuous interaction through free discussions may result in spontaneous and creative thinking. The larger the number of solutions , the fairer are the chances in locating an acceptable solution. The research proves that on hour brainstorming system is likely to generate 50 – 150 ideas. It is interesting to note that while most of them are proved to be impracticable, at least, some of them merit serious consideration.This group process is not without limitations. It continues lot of time and therefore,is an expensive exercise. Secondly,it emphasises only quantity of solutions which more often than not proved to be superficial. By overcoming the above limitations, a modern manager can use this an an effective tool. Some of the claimed advantages of the brainstorming technique include:-  » It reduces dependence on a single authority figure.  » It encourages the open sharing of ideas.  » It stimulates participation among group members. It provides individual safety in a competitive group.  » It maximizes output for a short period of time.  » It ensure a non evaluative climate.  » It tends to be enjoyable and stimulating. Synetics- When compared to Brainstorming, synectics is a new concept developed by William J. J. Gorden. The terms ‘Synectics' is derived from a Greek word which refers to â€Å"Fitting together of diverse elements†. It starts on the premise that this concept encourages novel thinking for the development of alternatives through putting together different ideas which are distinct from each other.A given problem is presented to a group of people with different backgrounds and varied experience. It is the responsibility of the group leader to present the problem and lead the di scussions in order to stimulate creative solutions. This approach ensures on the spot evaluation of members suggestions. The leader who is a technical expert is always assisting the group in evaluating the feasibility of their ideas. But experience shows that synectics has been less widely used than â€Å"Brainstorming†. When the problem is real tough and challenging, this approach is used for effective decision-making.Like Brainstorming it also suffers from the same range of limitations. The synectic techniwue includes the following steps:- Problem statement and background information stage:- The group leader describes the general area of discussion but avoids identifying the specific problem . Creative thinking on the problem is encouraged. The leader presents background information on the problem and the goals associated with the idea solutions. Good wishing stage:- Group members are encouraged to wish for anything that comes to mind that could address the problem.As in br ainstorming, in this â€Å"freewheeling stage† people are encouraged to generate wild ideas and to hitchhike. Exploring ideas and not evaluating them are of utmost importance at this stages. Excursion stage:- Paricipants are asked to forget about the specific problem. They are asked to generate ideas about a somewhat unrelated are that eventually might be related to the problem at hand. Forced-fit stage. Participants take ideas from the excursion stage and force them to fit the initial problem. Although this often appears quite unusual and obtuse, it is intended to encourage creativity.In fact,evidence suggests that many great thinkers develop ideas from such experimental thinking. Intemized response stage:- The group picks one of the ideas generated during the forced fit stage and pursues it further. The idea is dissected on only its positive aspects are identified. After all the positive aspects have been explored,the idea's limitations are addressed. This focus on the posi tive is intended to encourage productivity and creativity. The outcome of the synectic process is a single unique plan or decision that has undergone considerable evaluation.The process tends to produce innovative ideas. Synectic approach can be quite useful for creative planning and decision making. Its cost is high. Furthermore, it produces only one potential solution to a problem. If that solution turns out to be unusable,the problem remains, and the process has failed. The Nominal Group: The nominal group consists of people knowledgeable on the issue to be decided who are in the same physical location and who are aware of each other but who do not directly interact while they are working together.The specific techniques for using the nominal group in decision-making vary with the situation, but usually the following steps are involved. l> The manger brings the group together and outlines the problem. l>Each member of the group generates a number of ideas in writing. l>Each membe r then presents a single idea at a time to the entire group. The ideas are written on a blackboard or on large pieces of paper, and discussion of them is limited to clarification. When no further ideas merge, or when the manager feels the process has gone far enough, each member votes on the ideas, again in writing.The final decision is summed outcome of the individual votes, but the manager is free to accept or reject it. Ooerations Research:- The Origin and development of operations research is attributed to military operations and applications in 2†³Ã¢â‚¬  world war. The war put tremendous pressure on the use of available scarce resources for various strategic and tactical operations. The success of operations research in developing options of effective and efficient nature was instrumental in making this approach rather dependable in decision making process.Now-a-days, greater emphasis has been laid on the use of mathematical models to reflect different options and constra ints in a situation and their effect on a selected goal. This quantitative approach to decision-making is usually referred as â€Å"Operations Research†. Of late, it has become an invaluable tool in the kit of a decision-maker. Operations Research employs optimizing models like Linear Programming, Project Management,Inventory Control, Decision Theory and Waiting Line Theory.Operations Research is the systematic method of studying the basic structure, functions and relationships of an organization as an open system. It always adopts a systems approach to management in getting things done. It is constantly interested in developing optimal solution with limited resources in a given situation. It covers six steps in its approach to problem solving. They are: a. Identification of a problem. b. Construction of a mathematical model to investigate the problem. c. Developing a good solution. d. Testing of the model in the light, the data available. e.Identifying and setting up of cont rol points. f. Implementation of the option as a solution to a critical problem, putting a solution to work. In essence, Operations Research attempts to develop the best solution that will contribute to organizational goals. Limitations of Operation Research:- Operations Research technique is not †¢ panacea to all the problems of modern management. In other words, it is not the end. Since Operations Research does not take intangible aspects into consideration, subjective judgement becomes difficult under this model.As the Operations Research technique directly depends upon the use of mathematical and statistical tools,it is increasingly becoming complex and costly exercise. Since decision making is a human process,It cannot be predicted properly. At the same time, the impact of such factors cannot be measurable. Delphi Technique:- It is a technique normally used for forecasting future events. It is a group decision making technique. Under this method, independent opinions are s ought from the members repeatedly so as to develop a best solution to a given problem.The success of Delphi technique depends upon a simple technique of understanding the problem from the other man's perspective. This ensures success. Though it is a useful technique, since it involves time and cost,it can not be tried in all situations. At the operations level hundreds of de(isions are made in order to achieve local outcomes that contribute to the achievement of a company's overall strategic goal. However, all these decisions are interrelated and must be coordinated for the purpose of attaining the overall company goals. Many decisions-making situations occur under conditions of uncertainty.For example, the demand for a product may not be 100 units next week but may vary between 0 and 200 units, depending on the state of the market, which is uncertain. Decision analysis is a set of quantitative decision-making techniques to aid the decision maker in dealing with a decision situation in which there is uncertainty. However, the usefulness of decision analysis for decision making is also a beneficial topic to study because it reflects a structured, systematic approach to decision making that many decision makers follow intuitively without ever consciously thinking about it.Decision analysis represents not only a collection of decision-making techniques but also an analysis of logic underlying decision making. The general process of the Delphi technique follows: A panel of people who are knowledgeable about a particular problem is selected. The members of the group never actually meet. The panel can have members both inside and outside the organization, and the individual members may or may not know who the other members are. A questionnaire about the problem to be solved is sent to each members of the panel. Each person is asked to make anonymous suggestions.These suggestions are pooled, and a feedback report is developed. The feedback report and a more advanced, second stage questionnaire are sent back to the panel members. Each panel member independently evaluates the feedback report, votes on the priority of the ideas contained in it, and generates new ideas based on it. The process is repeated until a consensus is reached or until the manager feels that sufficient information has been received to make a decision. A final summary feedback report is developed and set back to the group members. A major advantage of the Delphi approach is its anonymity.In groups that interact face-to-face, one person may dominate, or everyone may watch the manager for clues to what is wanted. Further is interacting groups and individual may take a stand and not want to back down for fear of losing face. Frequently experts are more concerned with defending their position than with reaching a good decision. Electronic meetings: The most recent approach to group decision making blends the nominal group technique with sophisticated computer technology. It's cal led the electronic meeting. The major advantages of electronic meetings are anonymity, honestly and speed.Participants can anonymously type any message they want and it flashes on the screen for all to see at the push of a participant's board key. It also allows people to be brutally honest without penalty. And it's fast because chitchat is eliminated, discussions don't digress and many participants can â€Å"talk† at once without stepping on one another's toes. Experts claim that electronic meetings are as much as fifty five percent faster than traditional face to face meetings. Phelps Dodge Mining for instance, used the approach to cut its annual planning meeting from several days down to twelve hours.Yet there are drawbacks to this technique. Those who can type fast can outshine those who are verbally eloquent but lousy typists, those with the best ideas don't get credit for them, and the process lacks the information richness of face to face-to-face oral communication. Bu t although this technology is currently in its infancy, the future of group decision making is very likely to include extensive use of electronic meetings. Decision making without probabilities:- A decision making situation includes several components, the decision themselves and events that may occur in the future, known as states of nature.Future states of nature may be high or low demand for a product or good or bad economic conditions. At the time a decision is made, the decision maker is uncertain which state of nature will occur in the future and has no control over these states of nature. When the probabilities can be assigned to the occurrence of states of nature in the future, the situation is referred to as â€Å"decision making under risk†. When probabilities cannot be assigned to the occurrence of future events, the situation is called â€Å"decision making under uncertainty†.Each decision will result in an outcome or payoff, for each state of nature that w ill occur in the future. Payoffs are typically expressed in terms of profit, revenues, or cost. For example, if decision 1 is to expand a production facility and state of nature a is good economic conditions, payoff la could b e $100,000 in profit. Once the decision situation has been organized into a payoff table, several criteria are available to reflect how the decision maker arrives at a decision, including maximax, maximin, minimax regret, Hurwicz, and equal likelyhood.These criteria reflect different degrees of decision-maker conservatism or liberalism. On occasion they result in the same decision; however, they often yield different results. Different decision criteria often result in a mix of decisions. The criteria used and the resulting decisions depend on the decision maker. For example, the extremely optimistic decision maker might disregard the preceding results and make the decision to maintain the status quo, because the maximax criterion reflects his or her personal decision-making philosophy.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Print Ad Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 2

Print Ad Analysis - Essay Example It became obvious that the drink corresponds to the character of this director- bold, outrageous, and manly so he served as literal symbol of the beverage and its most typical consumer. It is well known that consumers tend to associate themselves with those whom they see in the advertisement. Tarantino is therefore a cult figure for numerous cinema fans because he crated the image of the perfect gangster in a suit, and such life seems attractive to many. All in all, whisky is often perceived as the beverage for real men because it contains a high percentage of alcohol. So basically one can get drunk very fast with whisky that is why only those who know how to drink it right usually choose this beverage. Whisky is often served with ice and is drunk slowly in a company of good friends. Dewar`s hints with this advertisement that the beverage is for those men who value style and quality and who can choose the best in any situation. Whisky is also the type of beverage for which the age is important- the longer it is kept the better it is eventually. So Dewer`s teaches its consumers to appreciate not only status and quality but time as well. The message of the ad is clear: Tarantino is sitting in a dark room of some luxurious restaurant on a leather sofa drinking his glass of Dewar`s with ice. This image implies everything that most men probably want when they dream of status and money. The appearance of Quentin on the ad symbolizes that on this stage of recognition and success people do not need attention; they need their good old glass of whisky to savor life. The motto of the advertisement fits the overall mood â€Å"there are two types of people in this world, those who are planning to do something and those who do†. This slogan is some kind of a call for action for most men because action is the only possible way for achievement, and we, people living in the

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Modernization of the World Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Modernization of the World - Essay Example Eventually, leisure became less influential, with most corporations giving their employees off in particular days to enjoy leisure. In other words, the world became a working nation as people struggled to expand their wealth base. Modernization did affect basic institutions as well. First, education became a serious concern because individuals needed to pass intelligence and stories from one generation to another. Schools developed ranging from lower level kindergartens to higher levels institutions of learning. Additionally, disciplines of study changed to cover many fields. For instance, psychology, law, engineering, and social arena expanded their subjects of study. Increasingly, the 20th century saw a link between the level of education and career that individuals pursued. Still, the family views on marriage because people assumed different roles. As more females entered the labor market and educated themselves, they became stable. Most women could raise children without necessarily having the support of male. Eventually, the concept of single mother became standard as professionals proved not keen on marriage. Some men and women preferred taking responsibility of their families as couples by sharing respo nsibilities but not based on traditional gender-oriented platforms. For instance, men and women could contribute equally to creating family wealth and shared duties at home equally. In fact, it was during the same period that feminism concepts became famous because women demanded equality on nearly all fronts.

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Topics Discussed in Class - My Participation in Class Assignment - 2

Topics Discussed in Class - My Participation in Class - Assignment Example I had no idea that understanding the change in trends, economic environment, political and legal environment is significantly important for marketing. In economies where the culture varies, the marketers have to come up with new and innovative strategies to increase demand. The marketing strategies are built on the basis of understanding the economic environment of a society which comprise of factors like demographics, culture, political & legal environment and the technological advancements to which the people have adapted to. Globalization has increased competition and the barriers have been removed. This in turn has brought changes in the institutional environment and has brought a significant effect on the marketers and their strategies (Griffith, 2010). In this globalizing world the marketer must make an attempt to understand the laws and regulation of the economies they are engaging in business with. They must respect the culture of the people so that effective marketing can be done. Understanding the people must be the primary objective of the marketer. The political condition and stability of an economy may be subject to change. This may change a few laws and regulations of the economy. The stability of the company may be tested under these varying conditions. I studied that the management and the marketers design their strategies in accordance to the political stability/instability in an economy. Sovereignty, political risk, taxes etc. are major concerns for the investors and hence are also of significant importance to the marketers while forming strategies (Shenkar, 2004). The political risk in the economy, the hikes in taxes expected if any and the jurisdiction are part of the economic environments. A socio economic society is dominated by the social norms and cultures which have been developed by the residents of the society (Shenkar, 2004). This gave me knowledge of interrelation of the entire factor and their growing significant importance as the world is becoming a global village. Hofstede proposed various theories to signify the importance of culture. He also identified certain traits of the individuals of the society. He argued that it is very important that the varying culture of the economies must be studied. Hofstede’s dimension of cultural relationship is based on five factors which are power distance, individualist, masculine & feminine cultures, uncertainty avoidance and long term orientation. The study of this model gives a clear understanding and classification of culture. The understanding that was developed by the marketers was that culture is the biggest factor which determines the success or failure of the product. This model is related to nature and time and the significant impact of globalizing has increased its use (De Mooij & Hofstede, 2002). While studying this concept I developed an understanding that Market segmentation is the process of grouping various customers into segments which have similar needs. The responses of the individuals are also similar in this segment. The responses of the segments vary with the changing situation. The segmentation can be carried out on the basis of Demographics, Psychographics, Geographical location etc. similarly targeting is dividing the market into various groups and classes. Positioning is the process of developing an image of the product for the customer (Viswanathan & Dickson,

Friday, July 26, 2019

Documentary for CNN Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Documentary for CNN - Assignment Example Its supporters fight back with the notion that stem cell research can have an extremely positive effect on future medical treatments, as embryonic stem cells can grow into anybody's cell and thus be used to treat diseases like muscular dystrophy, in which the patient experiences a gradual and eventually fatal loss of muscular tissues. As the scientific community is gradually pursuing research activities towards stem cell researches, the voices of opposition are also becoming stronger. Differing positions being taken by politicians and governments also widens the differences. Therefore, it provides a perfect base for producing a relevant documentary. The format of documentary will be somewhat like the steps being explained below; Step-2: An interview would be undertaken with Ernest A. McCulloch and James E. Till, the first scientists involved in this research. This will help in demonstrating the benefits of stem cell activities and how we human beings can benefit from such researches. Step-4: Political parties and respective governments have a deciding role towards encouraging or discouraging the stem cell research activities.

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Marketing Communications Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Marketing Communications - Essay Example IMC campaigns became the business necessity to keep their customers loyal and committed to their products in global competitive environment. This paper deals with the brief case studies of three different organizations from the same industry, on use of IMC campaigns, their selected target markets, campaign ideas, tools, themes and comparison of the three companies. The whole essay clarifies the concept of integrated marketing communication tools and objectives of their use. With a clear concept and implementation success of Integrated Marketing Communication tools, certain recommendations are made for the better future use of integrated marketing campaigns. The whole paper also addressed the challenges of Integrated Marketing Communication approaches. Integrated marketing communication With the advent of globalization in business world, businesses need to survive by following a head to head competition, customer loyalty and retention. There came the concept of using all marketing too ls together to get maximum benefit and an edge over competitors. This marketing technique is known as integrated marketing communication. This is a management concept that puts all the marketing communications under one head. Integrated marketing communication works as a unified force to accomplish all the marketing management goals of organization. This concept creates a link among all the forms of marketing through synergistic effect it provides. Many marketplace trends gave emergence to integrated marketing communication. Customers attitude is changing with increase in number of advertisement messages, media fragmentation, audience fragmentation, mergers of marketing agencies, global marketing, follower products, competition of ad agencies; decrease in costs of database management and maintenance of customer relationship. (Thorson, Moore, 1996) Integrated marketing communication process is not a very old concept but getting popularity in the upcoming trends of business needs of m aintaining competitive edge. In today’s environment integrated marketing communication is leading old techniques of communicating with consumers and customers. In near future, IMC campaigns and tools will become the success factors of businesses and their business need. Different IMC approaches There are five different and common and frequently used tools of IMC; Advertising, Sales promotions, Public relations, direct marketing and Personal selling (Kym Gordon Moore, 2009) Sometimes organizations focus on some of them and integrate with each other to get better results in consistency with the organization’s campaign objectives and organization’s resources. Theses all tools are commonly used for marketing purposes. But under integrated marketing communication, these tools are used as a unified force with bigger impact. Selected IMC approaches case studies Integrated marketing communication is a simple but vast concept of management and communication. Three IMC ca mpaigns are selected for a detailed analysis of efficiency in use, similarities in objectives, difference in approaches, ideas,

Mid-term Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Mid-term Paper - Essay Example This way of conceptualization of the past is has increasingly been used in a number of field sciences such as geology and biology. In archaeology, uniformitarianism is one of the major concepts that have always been widely used to conceptualize the past. For example, many archaeologists believe that the contemporary natural laws and other processes in the universe have always operated in the past as they are today. Uniformitarianism is a theory on the gentle, natural progressions that were experimental on the landscape. It suggested that ice could corrode rocks and sediments as well could accrue and form various new terrestrial land forms in the earth (David, 341). Consequently uniformitarianism is currently widely used as the key principle in a number of fields of sciences such as geology and archaeology. The other ways that have widely been used to conceptualize the past include catostrophism, transmutation and gradualism. Tthe concept of gradualism as used in archaeology is based on the theory that gradual changes occur over time. The theory of uniformitarianism particularly suggested that landscape development occurred over long periods of time as a result of a number of gradual geomorphic and geologic processes. It shows that the present is the key to the past and it was a direct denunciation to the predominant philosophy of the time, catastrophism which held that only violent adversities could adjust the outward of the world. Generally the concepts of uniformitarianism, gradualism, and catostrophism among others have widely been used not only to conceptualize the past but also to help understand the important geological processes that have occurred in the universe and how such processes have influenced events (Baker, 243). Time plays a significant role in all the three concepts and archaeologists have discovered a number of pieces of evidence to support some of these ideas and concepts. How uniformitarianism is used in the conceptualization of the past Ge ologists, Historians and archaeologists often study the remains of the past gologic activity as well as the records of the ancient human civilizations to provide evidence of the specific time and of such activities in history. The concept of uniformitarianism has been widely used by scientists not only to help in the reconstruction of the history of the earth but also to create a timeline of events throughout the history. According to Browman and Douglas (88), black rocks with porous surfaces can be used by geologists as an evidence of the past events. It is however worth noticing that although the idea that there are uniform laws governing the processes of nature, it is often difficult to prove beyond uncertainty what actually took place in the past. In archaeology, the concept of uniformitarianism is rather a process of making an educated guess based on objective and observational evidence found in the material remains. Today, many archaeologists suggest the continuing uniformity of the universal processes can be used as a framework to understand how landforms and some aspects of nature come to be. This is particularly based on the assumption that the processes currently taking place are the same processes that actually took

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Wage Gap Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Wage Gap - Assignment Example From this study it is clear that the rate of white women and Hispanic women with some college education was similar at 18%. In associate vocational training, associate academic, masters and bachelors, the white women had a considerably higher rate compared to the other groups of women and more so the Hispanic women. All the groups of women had about a similar number of women undertaking professional degree and a doctorate at 1% each. White women had potential experience compared to black women, but at a higher rate than the Hispanic women. The white women percentage in rural areas was higher than those in the other groups of women. The white women had higher weekly earnings than the black women.This paper highlights that  the weekly wage gap between the white women and black women is $ 85 per week compared to $ 200.8 difference between the white women and Hispanics.   The decomposition analysis helps explain to what extend the wage difference can be explained by cited variables. From the earnings regression, we observe that High school dropout rate affects earnings per group of women, followed by high school graduation rates, having a doctorate and professional degree also caused the difference in the wage rate per group of women. The rate of part time employment also affected the wage earnings in the different groups of women.In conclusion, it may be noted that some difference between the white women's earnings and earnings for the other groups of women could not be explained by citing   the variables.

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

3.3 Financial Analysis Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

3.3 Financial Analysis - Assignment Example ould likely result in liabilities hence previous trends and records of the organization can be used to assess the profitability of an organization as an investment opportunity (Ou & Penman 2009, pp.295–329). To understand the significance of the financial well-being of an organization, this paper will conduct a financial analysis of Chateau hotel redoubtable as an investment opportunity for the Smithsons. The core objective of investing in a business is to get a return for the price invested. Inferring to the statement of the financial position of the hotel basing on the analysis of two years (year ended December 30 2013 and 2014), the hotel made an improvement in the value of the total assets from â‚ ¬3,263, 000 to â‚ ¬3,881, 000. Additionally, the company made an improvement in the equity shares from 800 shares to 1000 shares with each of the share selling at â‚ ¬100. However, the company has an outstanding long-term loans and current liabilities with inclusion of the bank overdraft, payable dividend, taxation owing deposit by customers and payable-trade creditors cumulatively summing to â‚ ¬3,263, 000 for the financial year ended 2013 and â‚ ¬3,881, 000 for the financial year ended 2014. This implies that a liquidation of the assets of the company would be sufficient to settle the liabilities of the company without outstanding profit. However, inferring to the income statement of the company, it is evident that the rental income of the hotel had declined from â‚ ¬505, 000 in the year 2013 to â‚ ¬448, 000 in the year ended 2014. Analysis of the financial figures of the hotel indicates that the hotel is currently running at diminishing returns, which makes the chances for solvency and the resale of the company to be difficult. Equally, owing to the declining financial position of Chateau hotel redoubtable, the hotel is not profitable thus; investment in the hotel would demand a change in the strategy in the manner with which it is operated to realize profit.

Monday, July 22, 2019

Staying Friends With Your Ex After Divorce Essay Example for Free

Staying Friends With Your Ex After Divorce Essay Once the ink is dry on the divorce papers, it seems that some exes are becoming friends with each other. I am always surprised to hear that a divorced couple becomes so close again after everything ended. I would assume that they were unhappy together and looking forward to meeting new people and finding new ways to spend their time. The BFF with your ex phenomena is not fiction. These days, in many post-divorce situations its become fact. Recently, I attended a friends daughters wedding. He had been divorced from his ex-wife for many years and didnt speak much about her. At the reception, I was surprised to see that his relationship with the ex-spouse appeared to be sweeter than the wedding cake. They were chatting up a storm. Laughing at each others jokes. Dancing closely together. Sharing stories with their friends over cocktails. They were even feeding each other wedding cake, acting as though they had just met and fallen in love! I found this to be truly fascinating. Sure, I have heard of exes being civil following their split, even spending holidays together. However, this seemed to be more than just a cordial hello and how have you been? Curious about what would prompt two people to rekindle a friendship after a divorce, I pulled my friend aside and asked him about it. Point blank, he told me that he and his ex-wife were best friends. Best friends? I thought. Really? He went on to say nothings perfect and that maybe they expected too much from each other during the marriage. Now, they both feel that they make better friends than they did a married couple. Staying close with your ex In Hollywood, it seems that being close with your ex is becoming commonplace, as well. Kate Hudson and her ex-husband Chris Robinson were spotted recently at a park in Malibu with their son. Also in attendance were Robinsons present wife and their daughter. Ashlee Simpson and Pete Wentz who filed for divorce, both made it publically known that they still care for each other. It looks like time does heal all wounds and family comes first. In all of these cases, children were involved and its great to see that many parents put aside any hard feelings so they can focus on the needs of their children.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Teacher Leadership as a Catalyst for Change

Teacher Leadership as a Catalyst for Change Ankrum, R. J. (2016). Utilizing Teacher Leadership as a Catalyst for Change in Schools. Journal  of Educational Issues, 2(1), 151-165. doi:10.5296/jei.v2i1.9154 School leaders are continually attempting to discover alternative approaches to use and investigate teacher leadership potential in their schools. Teacher leaders will go well beyond their general obligations as an educator, and are the kind of teachers that fall under the theme of conceivably taking on added duties that will enhance the school community. This study takes the opportunity to look at approaches to use connections between teacher leaders and school leaders, keeping in mind that the end goal is to get the most output from the school staff. By injecting shared administration in the school group, duty and responsibility turns into a common belief that can be used as a catalyst for change throughout the school community. (Ankrum, 2016) The researcher of this study expected the following to come from their research: a) The results to conclude teacher leaders play an important role in changing the climate of a school; b) Teacher leader professional development is impactful to the teaching staff; c) Teacher leaders provide valuable guidance and support to the teaching staff; d) Teacher leaders increase the level of rigor provided by the teaching staff; and e) Teacher leader led professional development does in fact improve instruction in schools. (Ankrum, 2016) The research done for this study was completed as a Google Forms survey, which provides users with data collection, along with an analysis of the data collected. The survey was comprised of five questions fixated on teacher leadership, its role in culture change, enhancing professional development, and establishing professional learning groups that enhance educational practice. (Ankrum, 2016) When it came to the outcomes and findings of this particular study, the researcher concluded that teacher leaders are catalysts for change in schools. This research digs into exactly how significant teacher leaders are to the process of progress and change in school. The article explained that teacher leaders frequently go unacknowledged in light of the fact that they dont have titles, but titles do not make their impact any less important. Question number one examined the role that teacher leaders play in enacting change in the culture of schools. 90% of participants profoundly concurred that teacher leaders assume an instrumental part in changing the culture and way of life at a school. Question number two analyzed the effect of teacher driven professional development and its impact. 75.5% of participants profoundly concurred that teacher leader professional development is important to the educating staff. Question number three measured whether or not teacher leaders have direction and support to whatever is left to the educating staff. 93% of participants profoundly concurred that teacher leaders give direction and support to whatever remains of the educating staff. Question number four reviewed whether of not teacher leaders increase the level of thoroughness in classrooms.   70% of participants profoundly concurred that teacher leaders increase the thoroughness in classrooms. Question number five looked at whether or not educator driven peer observations were important. 90% of participants highly concurred that teacher leader driven peer observations were impactful to the educating staff. (Ankrum, 2016) Much like the teachers who were surveyed for the study in this article, I believe that teachers have the ability to play an instrumental role in changing the culture of a school. I also believe that teacher led professional development can greatly impact a school and can be very meaningful to the teaching staff, as I have been asked to lead a professional development session this school year, and have really enjoyed my teacher colleagues lead professional development session this school year as well. I agree with the survey participants that teacher leaders not only provide guidance and support to the rest of the teaching staff, but increase the rigor in classrooms as well. I also believe that teacher leader led peer observations can be tremendously beneficial to teaching staffs. In my current teaching situation, there are actually only three classrooms in our entire school, so weve essentially all taken on teacher leader positions, each focusing on our own strengths to share with th e other teachers in our school. This article left me curious as to how this study would turn out if it were to be done nationwide, instead of the few teachers selected by the researcher for this study.

Hotel chocolat an internationalisation strategy

Hotel chocolat an internationalisation strategy Hotel Chocolat (HC) was founded over 15 years ago with one goal: to make a better type of chocolate available to UK consumers bored by the mediocrity of that available (Hotel Chocolat, 2009). HC started as a catalogue business. Following the success of this business, the company set up an award winning website with the first of many HC stores appearing on the high.street in 2004. Since its success in the UK, HC has applied an export strategy to the US via an online ordering site. This strategy enabled the company to minimise risk before fully committing to foreign direct investment (FDI). Once adequate demand for the product was assured, HC opened its first American store in Boston and now has plans to further expand throughout North America. There are currently 43 stores located in the UK with an additional 23 operating inside John Lewis stores. It is likely that the company has expanded as far as it can domestically and should now focus its attention on international markets. In order to assess HCs ability to internationalise the following should be considered. HC is Britains fastest-growing private company with 225% sales growth per year (Fasttrack100, 2008) and sales equating to  £18 million in 2008. From this, one may infer that HC does indeed have sufficient resources for internationalization. However, it is questionable whether the company is prepared to undertake large-scale investments, due to the self-funding expansion strategy pursued so far. This essay will now present an internationalisation strategy for HC by applying theory and drawing upon personal contact with the Japanese External Trade Organisation (JETRO), the UK Trade and Investment team (UKTI) and HC representatives, as well as quantitative data from secondary research. Global figures for chocolate sales provide compelling incentives to further internationalise. In 2008 global chocolate sales were $62.16 billion (Datamonitor, 2009a). Contrasting these figures with the UK shows enormous sales potential. Currently the UK confectionary market is valued at $13.4 billion, with chocolate sales accounting for 67.5%. More tellingly, however, are the records for annual growth of market value between the years 2004-08 (Datamonitor, 2009b) which show a decided slow-down in the rate of growth. Although the economic down turn will have played its role in the calculation of these figures, we can be confident that the UK chocolate industry is operating within the mature stage of the product life cycle. This is problematic for HC as Kotler (2008 p.575) argues: A slowdown in sales growth results in an overcapacity of competition, which can ultimately lead to a decrease in profits. Furthermore, the domestic chocolate industry is dominated by Cadbury, Mars and Nestle who collectively hold a 59.8% market share (Datamonitor, 2009c). Expanding internationally into previously untapped markets may be the best solution to leverage any potential losses felt domestically as Hill (2009, p.426) states; Expanding globally allows firms to increase their profitability and rate of profit growth in ways not available to purely domestic enterprises. An essential part of any internationalisation strategy is the country screening process in which hundreds of possible countries must be systematically eliminated. There are numerous ways to do this and, when done professionally, a vast amount of research will be undertaken before any decisions are made. HC, as previously stated, have already begun expansion into North America and have made plans to expand into the Middle East (Retail week, 2009; Walker, 2009). For these reasons, we will not be considering either region. Europe will also be ruled out as the European luxury chocolate market is already highly saturated with rival brands from Belgium, France and Switzerland (RTS, 2009). The next mass filtration stage was to view the political stability scores (CIFP, 2007) of the remaining regions and leave only those scoring highest. This stage virtually eliminated Africa and Latin America, leaving predominantly the Asia Pacific region. Finally, the remaining countries were ranked in ord er of GDP per capita (CIA World Factbook, 2008) and all but the top eight were eliminated. This left: Hong Kong, Japan, China, Australia, New Zealand, South Korea, Malaysia and Singapore. Scrutinising these eight countries and drawing upon a variety of unequally weighted factors a country attractiveness index was formulated for each. Ultimately Japan was found to be the optimal host country with the greatest index score. Haak recently published that: no company can afford to neglect the dynamic Asian economic region (Haak, 2008 p.1). Within this region, Japan in particular assumes a key position (Haak, 2008 p.1) due to its sheer size and its wealthy and sophisticated consumers (JETRO, 2008). In order to formally evaluate Japans attractiveness as a host country, certain aspects of Dunnings eclectic paradigm have been applied. Focusing on ownership and location factors; the decision to fully invest in Japan can be justified (Dunning, 1988). Furthermore, location factors can be broken down into three advantages: economic, political and social. Japan is considered a major world financial hotspot with the 2nd highest number of millionaires residing there and household consumption expenditure figures exceeding those of most nations. This goes hand in hand with high consumer purchasing power and a demand for high quality produce. Perhaps one of the strongest reasons for investment in Japan is its potential as a gateway to the Asian-Pacific markets. As these markets grow rapidly, the economic integration between countries in the region continues to strengthen. This links to an ownership advantage that HC can achieve. Entering the Japanese market will allow access to other Asian markets over time and provide economies in both scale and scope. In recent years government policies have become an increasingly important factor affecting FDI (Brewer, 1993). The Japanese government have various foreign investment policies which incentivise investment. Japan, once restrictive of trade, has now shed this image and is attracting increasing levels of FDI. Whereas most national governments focus on financial incentives, the Japanese government follows a 3-step model which provides support for potential investors (Watanabe, 2003). As discussed later in this essay, this type of incentive reduces the need for foreign firms to access local knowledge by means of joint venture (JV) or merger. Knowledge of national cultures is commonly seen as a prerequisite to the effective entry into new markets (Chinta, Capar, 2007p.213), and is stated as such in the Scandinavian process model. However, various studies have found no support for this hypothesis (Barkema et al, 1996). It could also be argued that Japan is culturally equidistant between all nations, thus rendering the Scandinavian model redundant in this unique case. Ronen and Shenkar (1985) identified eight culturally homogenous blocks of countries, suggesting that firms benefit more from experiences in other countries within the same block. Japan, on the other hand, was not allotted a cluster and according to Barkema et al, (1996), no cultural block is appropriate for Japan. Therefore, Japan was allocated its own exclusive cultural block. This suggests that it would not be possible for a firm to gradually build experiential knowledge for Japan. This would partially support the decision for HC to immediately enter the mar ket. However, this argument suggests that knowledge of Japan would not increase understanding of other Asia Pacific markets, as previously thought. Nevertheless, the extent to which Japan does not belong to some larger cultural block is disputable. Western investors are often scared off by the uniqueness of the Japanese business model. However, this uniqueness can provide a host of opportunities to foreign firms wishing to access Japans wealthy consumers (Kensy, 2001). Porters diamond theory can be applied to Japan in order to assess its competitive advantage as the host country. In terms of inherent endowments such as land, labour and population size, it may appear that Japan is economically disadvantaged in comparison to large Asia Pacific states such as China. However, Porter argues a nations competiveness depends on the capacity of its industry to innovate and upgrade (Porter, 1998, p155). Based on these assumptions it can be recognised that a significant national comparative advantage is held by Japan. Immediate competition in the Japanese chocolate market is low but promises to grow significantly (Datamonitor, 2009d). This appeals to both Porters 5 forces model and the Diamond model, as it provides easier entry followed b y greater pressure to innovate and gain a global advantage. It is now worthwhile to consider any disadvantages, in order to gain a greater understanding of the risks involved. The Japanese market, as discussed, is one that is culturally unique. Therefore, in order to survive, HC would have to invest time and money reviewing cultural practices and adopt new management styles to suit Japan. Referring to Porters five forces analysis, the threat of substitute would seem to be an inherent problem in most markets, with Japan being no exception. Theoretically, HC would expect to face competition from alternative industries in the gift and snack markets. A recent report by Datamonitor (2009d) stated: confectionery products are vulnerable to the threat from substitutes such as savoury snacks and fresh fruits, due to low switching costs and consumption patterns in different geographies. In reality, competitive rivalry is deemed as moderate in this market, with branding contributing to a high level of customer loyalty. Therefore, price elasticity and pr oduct differentiation only play a small part in the competitive rivalry of the confectionery market (Datamonitor, 2009d). According to the electronics maker Canon Once a company is active in the Japanese market, it is three times harder to fail in business (Melville, 1999, p.113). However, Melville also notes that: it is three times harder to become successful in Japan in the first place. To summarise; Japan deserves the special attention of international companies, which in recent years have often neglected this economic heavyweight in an often blind enthusiasm for the Chinese market (Haak, 2008, p.3). The high GDP and considerable spending power of Japan provides the perfect marketplace for a high quality, innovative product. As long as risks are considered and the market is entered into carefully, there should be no reason why HC cannot reap the benefits. In an analysis of what motivates firms to move into new markets, Buckley suggests, there are three key motives: (1) Market seeking FDI, (2) Resource seeking FDI (3) Cost-reduction or efficiency seeking FDI. (Buckley, 2000 p.146). Buckley also believes that for any firm interested in investing in Japan, one of these key goals must be met. Furthermore, the main motive for any FDI into Japan will typically be market seeking. This is especially the case for any firm producing consumer goods such as HC. It is essential to understand the competitive landscape of the confectionary market in Japan, in order to formulate an optimal market strategy for HC. Japans confectionary market consists mainly of local companies offering a multitude of brands producing chocolate and sugar-based products. 48.1% of the confectionary market is dominated by three companies: Lotte Group, Meji Seika Kaisha, Ltd. and Ezaki Glico (Datamonitor, 2009d). So where can HC fit into this market? Most confectionery products are mass-marketed and manufactured in great volume to reduce costs so as to provide competitive prices whilst making a profit. Potentially, a more cost friendly option for the company is to enter the market in a small-scope, for example, by making high-value, low-volume products in a craft process rather than a mechanized process. (Datamonitor, 2009d). Coincidentally, this fits HCs high quality/exclusive brand image. Japans demographics provide a wide variety of potential consumers for HC. The primary target group is Japans silver market: the older, free spending portion of the population. Japan has an aging population and hence a growing market segment for HC. This group already has high buying power and furthermore, JETRO are forecasting growth of â‚ ¬30billion in the market for senior citizens. Another suitable segment in Japan is that of unmarried women over 30 (Haak, 2008). This group is largely luxury orientated and represents a financially promising market segment for HC to exploit. Moreover, in the experience of the UKTI, Japanese consumers are attracted to products that are healthy, high end and quintessentially British. All of these factors will contribute to HCs competitive advantage over Japans local producers. This essay will now discuss the possible strategies that HC could undertake, applying both theory and practical knowledge to formally review all available modes of entry. The mode of entry decision is crucial to any company, as it can have an ongoing effect on a firms international performance (Chung and Enderwick, 2001 p.443) it is therefore important to formally evaluate all possible modes. International market entry modes can be classified according to level of control, resource commitment and risk involvement (Kim Hwang, 1992). Table 2 takes these three classifications and applies them to specific modes of entry. As well as the classifications used in table 2, it is essential to consider culture and how a mode of entry fits in with the companys long-term objectives. When firms enter into a foreign market, they must contend with the national culture. However, when firms partake in JVs, they face double layered acculturation (Barkema et al 1996; Zacharakis, 1993); this can pose problems for a firm and increase the associated risk. JVs also require a great deal of capital, effort and trust. Additionally, JVs with Japanese firms may be particularly risky as learning effects may be asymmetric in JVs Japanese managers focus more on learning and less on information sharing (Barkema et al, 1996, p.164). Nevertheless, the knowledge needed to operate in a foreign market is not easily acquired, and in the early stages of market entry a native partner is strongly recommended to provide access to local market knowledge. Therefore, we propose HC should consider an agent distribution model, focusing largely on Japanese department stores. This should not however be the first stage of the internationalisation process. The Uppsala stage model stipulates organisational learning [through gradual] small steps whereby firms increase their international involvement up through the establishment chain (Bakema et al, 1996 p.152). In short, Uppsala urges firms to export before they create subsidiaries. Exceptions can be made when firms have experiential knowledge from markets with similar conditions, however, as discussed earlier, this cannot be the case with Japan. Therefore, we propose that as a first step, HC should extend their online ordering system by setting up a Japanese version of their website. This will allow HC to measure demand and increase brand awareness in the host market. By using this safe progression, HC will be in a position to both gauge the risks and benefits of the venture while at the same time acquiring cultural knowledge, incrementally increasing levels of exposure to corporate and national culture. Kim and Hwang, (1992) suggest that a firms familiarity with the host market relates to the mode of entry. As previously discussed, Japan is unlike other cultures and any strategy undertaken needs to be low risk and allow the firm to test the water with the host market. The use of an agent enables the company to avoid the financial and cultural risks associated with JVs for example. This is a more realistic strategy for HC due to their lack of size and international experience. Additionally, by appointing an agent, HC can retain control over their marketing mix and gain access to existing distribution networks. A crucial consideration when using an agent is to find a local party with a good reputation. Often agents will cover a specific territory and therefore as part of their strategy, HC should select a Japanese city in which to focus their internationalisation strategy. By observing successful moves made by close international competitors such as Godiva, it would seem that Tokyo wo uld most likely be selected (Godiva, 2009). Complications may arise if an agent is working for other companies that have conflicting interests to HC. In order to overcome such potential problems, HC should partake in a due diligence process. Careful selection criteria should be implemented to ensure that the agent has relevant expertise and appropriate business standing in line with HCs business interests. This market entry strategy is further supported when we consider withdrawal and divestment strategies. As Buckley notes, It is important for a firm to choose, at the outset, strategies whose exit costs are low (Buckley Casson, 1998, p.39). It is widely known that agent distribution models have low withdrawal costs relative to JVs, mergers and the like. By starting at the end and securing a strong exit strategy HC can significantly reduce the impact that would be felt by the organisation were the venture to fail. In conclusion, based on theory and the practical advice gained from a personal meeting with the UKTI, HC should first provide a Japanese version of their website in order to export to Japan whilst gaining knowledge of the local market and consumer demand. Once adequate demand is ensured, HC may proceed to employ an agent in order to develop brand recognition before finally opening a store in Tokyo. Since HC currently has a strong relationship with the UK department store John Lewis, it might be suitable for HC to pursue a similar strategy in Japan by joining a high-end department store, possibly with branches in other Asia Pacific locations. If the model proves to be successful, then by being in Japan, HC can reach other Asia Pacific locations, which, although not close in cultural space, are linked by a network of department stores. It is important to discuss the limitations of this report and offer suggestions for further study. One fundamental limitation of this report lies within the country screening process. It was only possible to base the primary stages upon political stability rankings, whereas it would be far better practice to cross reference a larger number of factors. Also, for the sake of originality it was not sensible to include any regions that HC had already considered. In doing this we may have disregarded some very appropriate locations. Factors such as cultural differences required proxies that, naturally, come with a degree of inaccuracy. The proxy used to estimate cultural distance was the percentage of British expats in the target locations. The power of this proxy is well supported, however, it is clearly arguable and a more powerful proxy could be employed with detailed national studies that could take into account: institutional style, business practices, media, etc. During the market a nalysis of the chocolate industry it was not possible to find specific data on the high quality chocolate industry performance, therefore, it was only possible to approximate levels of luxury chocolates being produced and consumed in both the UK and Japan. Finally, in a recent Financial Times presentation (Rowe, 2009) it was explained that you really have to walk the streets of the country to get a feel for what is the most suitable mode of entry. Theory and second hand knowledge of a country can only play a limited role in both the country screening process and mode of entry choice. In reality, a company should never base business decisions on secondary research alone. References BARKEMA, H, J BELL, J PENNINGS. 1996. Foreign entry, cultural barriers, and learning. Strategic Management Journal, 17, pp.151-166. BREWER. 1993. Government policies, market imperfections and foreign direct investment. Journal of International Business Studies, 24(1) pp.101-120. ANDERSON, E, H GATIGNON. 1999. Modes of foreign entry: a transition cost analysis and propositions. In: PJ Buckley, PN Ghauri The Internationalization of the firm. 2nd ed. Surrey: International Thomson Business Press. pp.185-207. BUCKLEY, P.J. P.N. GHAURI. 2004. Globalisation, Economic Geography and the Strategy of Multinational Enterprises. Journal of International Business, 35(2) pp.81-98. BUCKLEY, P. J. 2000. Multinational Firms, Cooperation and Competition in the World Economy, New York: St. Martins Press, LLC. p146. BUCKLEY, P.J, M CASSON.1998. Models of the multinational enterprise. Journal of international business studies. 29 (1) pp 21-44. BUSINESS LINK. 2009. Joint Ventures and Partnering [online]. [Accessed 3 December 2009] Available from: CHINTA, R, N CAPAR. 2007. Comparative Analysis of Managerial Values in the USA and China. Journal of Technology Management in China. 2(3) pp.212-224. CHUNG, H, F, P ENDERWICK.2001. An investigation of market entry strategy selection: exporting vs foreign investment modes a home host country scenario. Asia pacific journal of management. 18 pp433-460. CIA WORLD FACTBOOK. 2008. Country Comparison to the world GDP per capita (PPP) [online]. [Accessed 25 November 2009]. Available from: - CIA WORLD FACTBOOK. (2007a), GDP Purchasing Power Parity [online]. [Accessed 16 November 2009]. Available from: CIA WORLD FACTBOOK. (2007b) Wealth Distribution [online]. [Accessed 16 November 2009]. Available from:- CIA WORLD FACTBOOK. (2007c) Household Final Consumption Expenditure [online]. [Accessed 16 November 2009]. Available from:- CIA WORLD FACTBOOK. (2007d) Gross National Income Figures per Capita [online]. [Accessed 16 November 2009]. Available from:- COUNTRY INDICATORS FOR FOREIGN POLICY. 2007 Country ranking table 2007 [online] [Accessed 17 November, 2009]. Available from: DATAMONITOR. (2009a) Global Confectionary: Industry Profile, September2009 [online]. [Accessed 15 November 2009]. Available from: DATAMONITOR. (2009b) Confectionary in the United Kingdom: Industry Profile [online]. [Accessed 15 November 2009]. Available from: DATAMONITOR. (2009c) Industry Profile via Business Source Premier: Confectionary in the United Kingdom: Industry Profile [online]. [Accessed 15 November 2009]. Available from: DATAMONITOR. (2009d) Confectionary in Japan: industry profile [online]. [Accessed 22 November 2009]. Available from: http://) DUNNING, JH. 1988. The eclectic paradigm of international production: a restatement and some possible extensions. Journal of International Business, 19(1) pp1-31. FAST TRACK 100, League table and research. The Times. [online] [Accessed 27 November 2009] Available from: GODIVA. 2009. History of Godiva. [online] [Accessed 4 December 2009]. Available from: HAAK, U.M, R HAAK. 2008. Market Entry in Japan. UK: Palgrave Macmillan. HOTEL CHOCOLAT. (2009a). The Story of Hotel Chocolat. [online] Accessed 15 November 2009]. Available from: HOTEL CHOCOLAT (2009b) Hotel Chocolat Store Locations. [online] [Accessed 15 November 2009]. Available from: HILL, W. L. 2009. International Business: Competing In The Global Marketplace, New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. p.426. KENSY, R. 2001. Keiretsu economy-new economy? Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan. KIM, W.C. and P. HWANG. 1992. Global Strategy and Multinationals Entry Mode Choice. Journal of International Business Studies. 23(1), pp.29-53. KOTLER, P., et al. 2008. Principles of Marketing: Fifth European Edition, Essex: Prentice Hall. p.575. JAPANESE EXTERNAL TRADE ORGANISATION. 2008. 10 reasons to invest in Japan: sophisticated consumers with high purchasing power and discerning tastes [online]. [Accessed 22 November, 2009]. Available from: MINTEL. 2008. Chocolate Confectionary UK Report [online]. [Accessed 15 November 2009]. London: Mintel. Available from: MELVILLE, I. 1999. Marketing in Japan. Butterworth-Heinemann: Oxford. PALEPU,K, T KHANNA, I VARGAS, 2005. HAEIR: Taking a Chinese company global. Harvard Business School Publishing. pp 1-26. PENG, S. 1995. International joint ventures vs. wholly owned subsidiaries. [online] [Accessed 3 December 2009]. Available from: PORTER, M.E. 1998.On competition. UK: Free press. PORTER, M.E. 2008. The five competitive forces that shape strategy. In: M.E PORTER, On competition. USA: Harvard Business School publishing Corporation pp.1-35. RETAIL WEEK. 2008. Hotel chocolat to launch stores in the gulf in overseas growth drive, [online] [Accessed on 10th November 2009]. Retail week.19 June. Available from: RONEN and SHENKAR, 1985. Clustering countries on attitudinal dimensions: A review and synthesis. Academy of Management Review, 10(3), pp.435-454. ROWE, S. 2009. Financial times master class presentation: Marks and Spencer: the global opportunity. 4th November 2009. RTS. 2009. Challenging time for chocolate confectionary. [online]. [Accessed 12 November 2009]. Available from: WALKER, K. 2009. Hotel Chocolat. [Email]. Message to: J.Astin. 2nd November 2009. WATANABE, O. 2003. Efforts to attract foreign direct investment in Japan. International conference of the Japanese investment council, 22nd, Japan 30th January. WELCH, S.L, G.R.G BENITO, B PETERSEN. 2007. Foreign operation methods: theory, analysis, strategy. Edward Elgar Publishing ltd: Cornwall. ZACHARAKIS, A. 1993. The double whammy of globalisation differing country and foreign partner cultures. The academy of management executive 10(4). pp.109-110.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Techno †Cihuatl: The Birth of a Modern Mexican Female. :: Culture Cultural Mexico Papers

Techno – Cihuatl: The Birth of a Modern Mexican Female I learned about computers and technology a little at a time, from simple games, to web building and heavy use of applications. Some of the knowledge came form a school setting; most of it I acquired from trial and error and by a friend’s teachings I overcame the limitations of growing up in a Third-World country (Mexico) with little access to technology and tried to keep up with its changes as time went by. My country has had a love-hate relationship with the US for a long time. Within the huge Mexican middle class there are different opinions regarding the US way of life. While some people crave to have every single item of "gringo-wealth" such as electronics, clothing and even food, some others are deeply concerned about the "loss of identity" "deculturalization" and hegemony that US-like culture has brought to Mexico. This phenomenon is particularly clear among the generation born in the seventies, especially women. Young Mexicanas that are now in their middle twenties are torn apart between two worlds: First, the technology – driven college education and work that are the symbols of US - imported woman liberation. Second, the motherhood – housewife roles traditionally imposed on them by the Mexican culture along with their religious, mystical, and cultural implications. Instead of marrying both ideas into a nice middle term, Mexican society (which is still a male dominated environment) tends to relegate them apart: either you become a housewife, or a professional. I consider that these extremes are always detrimental. I was the first-born of a young couple fresh out of college. My parents belonged to the first generation of Mexicans that lost their political innocence (and correctness) with the student’s riots of ‘68; they were rebels by nature. My mother was a biochemical engineer in a society where women were supposed to be teachers or housewives. My father was the only one out of five sibling who finished college, and he worked in a transnational firm, which was very odd at the time. Unlike most of our relations, we were no strangers of technology, mainly because we "imported" many appliances from California, where my uncles lived. We had a black and white TV; my father listened music using certain tapes that looked like Nintendo cartridges and he also had acetate discs, we had no telephone, but we were the first family in our block to get a microwave.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Sinking Into Society Essay -- World History

In any nation mistakes have been the source of change. Whether it is safety or governmental reform or a revolution in the nation’s lifestyle and customs, those mistakes have made a lasting imprint on the minds of their people. The sinking of one of history’s maiden voyages, the Titanic, has made such impact on the American people; Titanic cannot be mentioned without stirring deep emotions for those who have perished. It is one of history’s most devastating catastrophes but it is also the first ship to send the new SOS distress call instead of the original CQD signal meaning â€Å"all stations: distress†. Titanic â€Å"was the ship of dreams, whose passengers scrounged up their life savings to purchase a ticket abroad the maiden ship† (Titanic). Constructed with millionaire suites and private promenade decks, Titanic â€Å"was the largest moving object ever made by the hand of man in all history† (Titanic). However, in its determination to mak e the journey across the Atlantic the fastest ever recorded, it ultimately sank to the bottom of the ocean, leaving behind a legacy still found in America today. Titanic’s infamous flounder has affected America’s culture in unthinkable ways; its legacy can be found in American media, the spawning of new technological advancements, and in the world’s current maritime policies. News of Titanic’s sinking reached America quickly. It was front-page news for months and the first time that â€Å"a major news event was reported to the public primarily through electronic means, the wireless telegraph† (Titanic as Popular Culture). The US National Newspaper stated that â€Å"coverage of the Titanic disaster transformed New York Times into a global voice because of its integrity, accuracy, and immediate coverage† (Titanic as ... ... the minds of the American people. It has transformed America in astonishing ways, and its legacy will continue to impact American culture for years to come. Works Cited Minichiello, Ray. "Titanic Tragedy Spawns Wireless Advancements." Audio UK Is the Webs Best Directory for Audio HiFi Dealers and Manufacturers in the UK. Web. 28 Jan. 2012. "Titanic as Popular Culture." Media Awareness Network | Rà ©seau à ©ducation Mà ©dias. Web. 28 Jan. 2012. Titanic. Dir. James Cameron. Perf. Leonardo DiCaprio, Kate Winslet, and Billy Zane. Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation, 1997. IMDb. Web. 31 Jan. 2012. "Titanic Disaster." Emergency Medical Paramedic. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. Wikipedia contributors. "Changes in safety practices following the RMS Titanic disaster." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free–Encyclopedia, 13 Jan. 2012. Web. 25 Jan. 2012.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Music Censorship Essays -- essays research papers

Marilyn Manson, The Beatles, NWA, Garth Brooks, and the king, Elvis, What do all these people have in common? Well, yes, they are all musical groups, but there is something more. Marilyn Manson is a heavy metal group who worships Satan, the Beatles were one of the greatest Rock N’ Roll bands of all time, and NWA was a hard-core rap group from the 80’s. Garth Brooks is a country singer and greatest selling performer of all time, and well, Elvis is the king of Rock N’ Roll. So what do they all have in common? All of these artists have or had songs with indecent or obscene lyrics.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Since the dawn of musical expression, there have been people trying to stop or hinder the constitutional right to listen and enjoy music of all forms. There were ordinary, everyday people during the infancy of Rock N’ Roll in the 1960’s who made it their mission in life to stop so-called â€Å"obscene† music like the Beatles song â€Å"Lucy In the Sky With Diamonds,† from polluting our airwaves and minds. These groups succeeded in banning some songs from the radio, but most of their actions were for naught, because there was no real punishment for radio stations playing those songs labeled â€Å"obscene.† By 1985, many people wanted to cleanse the music industry of its â€Å"indecent† music, so the most prominent group in the history of music censorship was started: The Parents’ Music Resource Center (PMRC)-(A Brief†¦). This was just the first of many groups who made it their business to decide what the America n Population should or should not listen to. These censorship groups have also been able to get government money in order to fight, lie, and bribe their way to censoring music. The PMRC and other organizations have also convinced government organizations like the Federal Communications Commissions (FCC) to regulate what music is played on the radio. Places like Target, Disc Jockey, and other local record stores are also forced to label music that the PMRC and other censorship groups find obscene (A Brief†¦)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Who is to say that what is obscene to someone might not be seen as obscene to another person? This question, as well as many others, brought forth many anti-censorship organizations who fight to give the people of America the right to listen to whatever music they want to, indecent or not. The First Amendment from anyone who tries to cen... ...ment and all the music censorship organizations to deny musicians and the public our constitutional rights? And why do we pay millions of our tax dollars to try and undermine what our whole country was built upon over two hundred years ago? We must acknowledge that ratings systems of any kind can do and result in censorship. And we all must fight to preserve free speech for everyone regardless of whether or not we agree with the message. (National Campaign†¦) When politicians and religious leaders call for censorship because they personally find the message objectionable, or you wonder why you should join the fight against music censorship, please consider this quote be Martin Niemoeller, a Lutheran pastor who was arrested by the Gestapo in 1938. He said, In Germany, the Nazi’s came for the communists, and I didn’t speak up because I wasn’t a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn’t speak up because I wasn’t a Jew. Then they came for the Catholics, and I didn’t speak up because I was a Protestant. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn’t speak up because I wasn’t a trade unionist. Then they came for me, and by that time there was no one left to speak for me.