Monday, September 30, 2019
Introduction Present essay provides a comparative analysis of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Othello and Abu-JaberÃ¢â¬â¢s Crescent in terms of locating similar and opposite themes. The theme that was chosen is representation of Arabness as social, individual and cultural category. There is no denying the importance of the fact that both works depict the fate of Arab people in Western civilization, including Western attitudes to them, their own perception of Western way of life and traditions and their relations with other people. Moreover, both works serve as the instruments for revealing negative contours of Western societies, including racist prejudices, which is especially evident in Othello. Based on the latter reservations, present essay defends the thesis, which may be formulated as follows: ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Othello and Abu-JaberÃ¢â¬â¢s Crescent have much in common due to the fact that beneath recurrent symbols and themes, such as love, betrayal etc. lies the central theme of Arabness, reflected through the prism of civilizationsÃ¢â¬â¢ interchange, conflict and contradiction. The comparative analysis of Othello and Crescent Both Othello and Crescent have Arab people, found themselves in certain roles within Western civilization, as their main protagonists. The conflict between them and Western civilization takes place on different thematic levels, explained by the difference in plots and historical surrounding. Sirine, the main protagonist of Cresent, is a chef at Lebanese restaurant in Los Angeles with Middle-Eastern cuisine. Her surrounding consists of the Arab people, many of whom were exiled or emigrated from Iraq due to political repressions. SirineÃ¢â¬â¢s Arabness is constituted by her sentimental intimacy to Iraqi uncle and a great interest in Iraqi history, culture and Muslim traditions in general. Notwithstanding the fact, that Sirine is successful in America, she is rather lonely and still feels herself an immigrant, living in alien and unfriendly culture. The latter feeling of loneliness is well described by the friend of Sirine, called Um-Nadia: Ã¢â¬Å"The loneliness of the Arab is a terrible thing; it is all-consumingÃ¢â¬ ¦. it threatens to swallow him whole when he leaves his own country, even though he marries and travels and talks to friends twenty-four hours a day. Ã¢â¬ (Abu Jaber,78) Hence, it is important to note that SirineÃ¢â¬â¢s Arabness and conflicting status within Western civilization are not constituted in direct terms and notions, bearing on direct political connotations. As Nouri Gana rightly suggests about Abu JaberÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, Ã¢â¬Ëperhaps one of the most glowing virtues of the novel is that it awakens the political in the reader by craftily staging how it bears on the individual and communal on a day-to-day basisÃ¢â¬â¢ (Gana, 237). The same may be said about ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Othello, where Arabness is also not addressed directly, but essentially mediated through thematic, symbolical and cultural discourses. Unlike CrescentÃ¢â¬â¢s where the contradiction between cultures and civilization is depicted as the difficulty of adaptation, assimilation and longing for native country, Arabness in Othello is constituted mainly in racist terms. However, the latter racism should also be understood as the instruments by means of which Shakespeare debunks aggressive, brutal, coward character of such members of Western civilization as Iago. The Arabness of Othello is initially constituted through the mechanism of exoticization, when he is named not by name, but as Ã¢â¬ËMoorÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëextravagant strangerÃ¢â¬â¢, which immediately creates mental border between civilizations. (Othello 1. 1. 58 and 1. 1. 37). Here, the direct distinction in representing Arabness may be traced at the narrative level of Crescent. Unlike Othello, Hanif Al Eyad, who is an exiled Iraqi professor, does not experience direct racial prejudices, but problems of adapting to American society. What is more important, he has significant problem of integrating in Arab American community, which is already assimilated into the wider American culture. In fact, Hanif finds himself in a difficult position of finding new contours of his Arabness, as he meets with new conditions of its existence in the American society. In the same vein, Sirine reconfigures her identity, when she starts working at Arab restaurant. Her lost Arab roots come to existence, when she delves into her parents, Ã¢â¬â¢old recipes and to begin cooking Ã¢â¬Å"the favoriteÃ¢â¬âbut almost forgottenÃ¢â¬âdishes of her childhoodÃ¢â¬ (Abu Jaber, 22). Finally, when Hanif and Sirine meet, they are engaged in cultural interchange Ã¢â¬â Sirine educates him about American and Hanif opens the culture of Iraq and the Arab world to Sirine. In this way, the Arabness is constituted in the contradictory multicultural way, when it becomes a mixture of American way of life, its contradictions, immigrantsÃ¢â¬â¢ culture and post-9/11 Ã¢â¬Ëanti-Muslim syndromeÃ¢â¬â¢, negatively experienced by Arab people, living in the US. Therefore, the Arabness in Crescent and Othello are constituted in distinctively different ways. OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s racial and cultural difference is the main source of legitimization for brutal behavior of Roderigo, Iago and others, who oppose the relationships between Othello and Desdemona. In fact, Desdemona is the only protagonist, which opposes particularization of cultural differences and represents universality of human relationships. She sees in Othello neither Arab, nor exotic man, but a man, whom she loves. The narration in Othello is abundant with racial prejudices, which function as the markers of Arabness. At the outset of the play, Iago wakes Brabantio up and tells him that Ã¢â¬Å"an old black ram / Is tupping your white eweÃ¢â¬ (1. 1. 89-90), referring to Othello. The relations between Othello and Desdemona are also presented by Iago through racist discourse, Ã¢â¬Å"your daughter covered with a Barbary horseÃ¢â¬ (1. 1. 112), and reminds Brabantio of genetic consequences for his family, Ã¢â¬Å"youÃ¢â¬â¢ll have your nephews neigh to you,Ã¢â¬ (1. 1. 112-18). Other features of OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s Arabness are reproduced mainly through the depiction of his temperament and here we find ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s critical edge, which uses then dominant racial prejudices of English aristocracy to depict their defected nature. Othello is depicted by Shakespeare as lacking Western (Iago-type) Ã¢â¬ËvirtuesÃ¢â¬â¢ as cunningness, meanness, egoism, rationality, calculation, but endows him with trustful, kind, energetic temperament. The latter positive constitution of Arabness serves as the critique of Western society deficiencies and problems. Eventually, such features of Arabness result in tragic ending of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s play (Bartels, 458). Othello as Abu-JaderÃ¢â¬â¢s protagonists also seems lonely in the Western world, where all are against him. Pain of loss, exile and loneliness, however, is presented in Crescent in more sentimental quotidian way. For instance, it is evident when SirineÃ¢â¬â¢s Iraqi uncle asks the Italian waiter in a restaurant: Ã¢â¬Å"WouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t you say that immigrants are sadder than other people? Ã¢â¬ To which the latter responds, Ã¢â¬Å"When we leave our home we fall in love with our sadness. Ã¢â¬ (Abu-Jaber, 78). Another important theme, which runs through Abu-JaberÃ¢â¬â¢s novel is difficulty of being Arab. This idea is mainly propagated by SirineÃ¢â¬â¢s uncle and defended through telling mythical stories from Arab history, depicting the suffering of Arab people. The difficulty of being Arab is also presented at the level of racialized and politicized metaphors, which represent Arabness in Western world and in fact distort real culture of Arab people. In this way, Arabness is constituted as the ideological category, which has nothing to do with real life of Arab people (Gana, 241). The latter contradiction may be traced in Othello, when in fact our vision of the main protagonist is constituted by Oriental discourse. One of the major differences pertinent to the analyzed works is general narrative tone in which the latter discussed contradictions are presented. The contradictions of being Arab in the Western world in Cresent are presented through the depiction of Arab community daily life. The experience of Sirine and Hanif is characterized by sentimental feelings, loneliness, psychological trauma etc. The conflict between cultures and civilizations is presented as the quotidian difficulties of communication, adaptation and active life. The romantic ties which united Sirine and Hanif may be described as the part of sentimental representation of Arabness in Abu-JabarÃ¢â¬â¢s novel. However, as it was noted above, even such approach to narration reveals much of the tensions and contradictions, experienced by immigrant Arabs. Unlike Crescent, Othello represents the evidence of contradictions between Western and Eastern civilization, which results in tragic implications for the destiny of individual people. Racial prejudices against Othello function as the legitimization of IagoÃ¢â¬â¢s plot against him. The differences between temperament and culture of Othello and his latent rivals, hence, should be understood as the main driving force of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s tragedy. Conclusion To sum it up, Arabness may be described as the central theme in both ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s and Abu-JaberÃ¢â¬â¢s works. It is represented on the level of human relations and is not directly interpreted in political manner, however, certain ideological and political interpretations may be found. Racial prejudices in Othello serve as a tool for debunking negative features of Western civilization and human/universal features, reflected in OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s temperament. In Crescent, the Arabness is presented through the prism of immigrantsÃ¢â¬â¢ difficulty of adaptation, permanent feeling of pain, loneliness and lack of identity. In this way, the discussed theme has both similarities and difference in the discussed novels, explained by their distinct genres, historical and cultural surrounding. Works Cited Abu-Jaber, Diana. Crescent. New York: Norton, 2003. Bartels, E. C. Ã¢â¬ËMaking More of the Moor: Aaron, Othello, and Renaissance Refashioning of RaceÃ¢â¬â¢. Shakespeare Quarterly vol. 41: 454, 1990. Gana, Nouri. Ã¢â¬ËIn Search of Andalusia: reconfiguring Arabness in Diana Abu-JaberÃ¢â¬â¢s CrescentÃ¢â¬â¢. Comparative Literature Studies. Vol. 45, no. 2, 2008. The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA. Shakespeare, W. Othello. The Complete Works of Shakespeare, ed. David Bevington, 3d edition. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, 1980.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
USLegal.com A managed care organization (MCO) is a health care provider or a group or organization of medical service providers who offers managed care health plans. It is a health organization that contracts with insurers or self-insured employers and finances and delivers health care using a specific provider network and specific services and products. They provide a wide variety of quality and managed health care services to enrolled workers keeping medical costs down through preventative medicine, patient education, and in other ways. These organizations are certified by the director of the Department of Consumer and Business Services (DCBS). MCOs vary in their constitution as some organizations are made of physicians, while others are combinations of physicians, hospitals, and other providers. For instance, a group practice without walls, independent practice association, management services organization, and a physician practice management company are the common MCOÃ¢â¬â¢s. Patient Advocate Foundation Providers of care, such as hospitals, physicians, laboratories, clinics, etc., make up a Ã¢â¬Å"managed care organizationÃ¢â¬ delivery system often known as an Ã¢â¬Å"MCO.Ã¢â¬ Seven common MCO models are: 1. Preferred Provider Organization (PPO) An arrangement whereby a third-party payer (health plan) contracts with a group of medical-care providers who furnish services at agreed-upon rates in return for prompt payment and a certain volume of patients, perhaps under contract with a private insurer. The services may be furnished at discounted rates, and the insured population may incur out-of-pocket expenses for covered services received outside the PPO if the outside charge exceeds the PPO payment rate. 2. Point-of-Service Plan (POS) Also known as an open-ended HMO, POS plans encourage, but do not require, members to choose a primary care physician. As in traditional HMOs, the primary care physician may act as a Ã¢â¬Å"gatekeeperÃ¢â¬ when making referrals; plan members may, however, opt to visit out-of-network providers at their discretion. Subscribers choosing not to use a network physician must pay higher deductibles and co-payments than those using network physicians. 3. Exclusive Provider Organization (EPO) AÃ network of providers that have agreed to provide services on a discounted basis. Enrollees typically do not need referrals for services from network providers (including specialists), but if a patient elects to seek care outside of the network, then he or she will not be reimbursed for the cost of the treatment. An EPO typically does not provide the preventive benefits and quality assurance monitor. 4. Physician-Hospital Organization (PHO) A contracted arrangement among physicians and hospital wherein a single entity, the Physician Hospital Organization, contracts to provide services to insurersÃ¢â¬â¢ subscribers. 5. Individual Practice Association (IPA) A formal organization of physicians or other providers through which they may enter into contractual relationships with health plans or employers to provide certain benefits or services. 6. Managed Indemnity Program A program in which the insurer pays for the cost of covered services after services have been rendered and uses various tools to monitor cost-effectiveness, such as precertification, second surgical opinion, case management, and utilization review. Also called managed fee-for-service programs. 7. Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) HMOs offer prepaid, comprehensive health coverage for both hospital and physician services. An HMO contracts with health care providers, e.g., physicians, hospitals, and other health professionals, and members are required to use participating providers for all health services. Model types include staff, group practice, network, and IPA. They differ in their financial and organizational arrangements between the HMO and its physicians. Some HMOs combine various attributes of the four principal models. WISCONSIN DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH SERVICES When a person decides to enroll in Family Care, they become a member of a managed care organization (MCO). MCOs operate the Family Care program and provide or coordinate services in the Family Care benefit. The Family Care benefit combines funding and services from a variety of existing programs into one flexible long-term care benefit, tailored to each individualÃ¢â¬â¢s needs, circumstances and preferences. View a list of items covered in the Family Care benefit package. In order to assure access to services, MCOs develop and manage a comprehensive network of long-term care services and support, either through purchase of service contracts with providers, or byÃ direct service provision by MCO employees. MCOs are responsible for assuring and continually improving the quality of care and services consumers receive. MCOs receive a per person per month payment to manage care for their members, who may be living in their own homes, group living situations, or nursing facilities. Some highlights of the Family Care benefit are: When a person decides to enroll in Family Care, they become a member of a managed care organization (MCO). MCOs operate the Family Care program and provide or coordinate services in the Family Care benefit. The Family Care benefit combines funding and services from a variety of existing programs into one flexible long-term care benefit, tailored to each individualÃ¢â¬â¢s needs, circumstances and preferences. View a list of items covered in the Family Care benefit package. In order to assure access to services, MCOs develop and manage a comprehensive network of long-term care services and support, either through purchase of service contracts with providers, or by direct service provision by MCO employees. MCOs are responsible for assuring and continually improving the quality of care and services consumers receive. MCOs receive a per person per month payment to manage care for their members, who may be living in their own homes, group living situations, or nursing facilities. Some highlights of the Family Care benefit are: People Receive Services Where They Live. MCO members receive Family Care services where they live, which may be in their own home or supported apartment, or in alternative residential settings such as Residential Care Apartment Complexes, Community-Based Residential Facilities, Adult Family Homes, Nursing Homes, or Intermediate Care Facilities for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities. People Receive Interdisciplinary Case Management. Each member has support from an interdisciplinary team that consists of, at a minimum, a social worker/care manager and a Registered Nurse. Other professionals, as appropriate, also participate as members of the interdisciplinary team. The interdisciplinary team conducts a comprehensiveÃ assessment of the memberÃ¢â¬â¢s needs, abilities, preferences and values with the consumer and his or her representative, if any. The assessment looks at areas such as activities of daily living, physical health, nutrition, autonomy and self-determination, communication, and mental health and cognition. People Participate in Determining the Services They Receive. Members or their authorized representatives take an active role with the interdisciplinary team in developing their care plans. MCOs provide support and information to assure members are making informed decisions about their needs and the services they receive. Members may also participate in the Self-Directed Supports component of Family Care, in which they have increased control over their long-term care budgets and providers. People Receive Family Care Services that Include: Long-Term Care Services that have traditionally been part of the Medicaid Waiver programs or the Community Options Program. These include services such as adult day care, home modifications, home delivered meals and supportive home care. Health Care Services that help people achieve their long-term care outcomes. These services include home health, skilled nursing, mental health services, and occupational, physical and speech therapy. For Medicaid recipients, health care services not included in Family Care are available through the Medicaid fee-for-service program. People Receive Help Coordinating Their Primary Health Care. In addition to assuring that people get the health and long-term care services in the Family Care benefit package, the MCO interdisciplinary teams also help members coordinate all their health care, including, if needed, helping members get to and communicate with their physicians and helping them manage their treatments and medications. People Receive Services to Help Achieve Their Employment Objectives. Services such as daily living skills training, day treatment, pre-vocational services and supported employment are included in the Family Care benefit package. Other Family Care services such as transportation and personal care also help people meet their employment goals. People Receive the Services that Best Achieve Their Outcomes. The MCO is not restricted to providing only the specific services listed in the Family Care benefit package. The MCO interdisciplinary care management team and the member may decide that other services, treatments or supports areÃ more likely to help the member achieve his or her outcomes, and the MCO would then authorize those services in the memberÃ¢â¬â¢s care plan. For a complete list of the services that must be offered by MCOs, refer to the description of the long-term care benefit package in the Health and Community Supports Contract. People Receive Services Where They Live. MCO members receive Family Care services where they live, which may be in their own home or supported apartment, or in alternative residential settings such as Residential Care Apartment Complexes, Community-Based Residential Facilities, Adult Family Homes, Nursing Homes, or Intermediate Care Facilities for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities. People Receive Interdisciplinary Case Management. Each member has support from an interdisciplinary team that consists of, at a minimum, a social worker/care manager and a Registered Nurse. Other professionals, as appropriate, also participate as members of the interdisciplinary team. The interdisciplinary team conducts a comprehensive assessment of the memberÃ¢â¬â¢s needs, abilities, preferences and values with the consumer and his or her representative, if any. The assessment looks at areas such as activities of daily living, physical health, nutrition, autonomy and self-determination, communication, and mental health and cognition. People Participate in Determining the Services They Receive. Members or their authorized representatives take an active role with the interdisciplinary team in developing their care plans. MCOs provide support and information to assure members are making informed decisions about their needs and the services they receive. Members may also participate in the Self-Directed Supports component of Family Care, in which they have increased control over their long-term care budgets and providers. People Receive Family Care Services that Include: Long-Term Care Services that have traditionally been part of the Medicaid Waiver programs or the Community Options Program. These include services such as adult day care, home modifications, home delivered meals and supportive home care. Health Care Services that help people achieve their long-term care outcomes. These services include home health, skilled nursing, mental health services, and occupational, physical and speech therapy. For Medicaid recipients, health care services not included in Family Care are available through the Medicaid fee-for-service program. People Receive Help Coordinating Their Primary Health Care. In addition to assuring that people get the health and long-term care services in the Family Care benefit package, the MCO interdisciplinary teams also help members coordinate all their health care, including, if needed, helping members get to and communicate with their physicians and helping them manage their treatments and medications. People Receive Services to Help Achieve Their Employment Objectives. Services such as daily living skills training, day treatment, pre-vocational services and supported employment are included in the Family Care benefit package. Other Family Care services such as transportation and personal care also help people meet their employment goals. People Receive the Services that Best Achieve Their Outcomes. The MCO is not restricted to providing only the specific services listed in the Family Care benefit package. The MCO interdisciplinary care management team and the member may decide that other services, treatments or supports are more likely to help the member achieve his or her outcomes, and the MCO would then authorize those services in the memberÃ¢â¬â¢s care plan. For a complete list of the services that must be offered by MCOs, refer to the description of the long-term care benefit package in the Health and Community Supports Contract. A managed care organization (MCO) is a health care provider or a group of association of medical examination providers who proposes accomplished health plans. It is a health group that bonds with insurers or self-insured employers and funds and provides health care by means of a definite provider system and precise facilities and products. An MCO is an insurer that delivers both healthcare amenities and payment on behalf of services. They offer a comprehensive range of quality and managed health care services to the joined employees by keeping medical charges down through preventive medicine, patient teaching, and in additional ways. These organizations are certified by the director of the Department of Consumer and Business Services (DCBS). MCOs vary in their constitution as some organizations are made of physicians, while others are combinations of physicians, hospitals, and other providers. For instance, a group practice without walls, independent practice association, management services organization, and a physician practice management company are the common MCOÃ¢â¬â¢s.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Ethical Issues in Research - Personal Statement Example Background: It describes the basic information and history about the programmes or the project which is being evaluated. Review of evaluation questions: This section describes the goals of the evaluation of the programmes. It includes specific evaluation questions and reasons for each question. Evaluation methods: These describe in detail the design and the process of the evaluation. This process of evaluation includes the major criteria used for selecting samples or the participants. It also explains the data collections approaches and the process of analysis of the data. Key findings: These are the main observation from the overall research programme which provides descriptions of the participants or the samples which include the demographics of the participants and the extent of participation. Conclusions: It contains the comparisons hypothesis of the research with the actual findings. It reflects the strength of the research programme identified in the evaluation and recommendati on for further improvement of the work i.e. the process of finding the results. It also describes the limitation of the research process and the evaluation process. ... A particular academic journal represents an in-depth analysis of a particular area of any subject. The main aim of this is to provide detailed analysis or information about a narrow topic of academics. An analysis is done in a much deeper level to find out the key outcomes and the limitations. Newspaper report: A newspaper report generally discuss the current or recent news or issues from diverse areas. It includes the accounts of eye witness for the happening events. Gene3rally newspaper reports answers almost all the questions like who, what, when, where, how and lastly the most important way. These articles are written keeping in mind the mass market knowledge base to understand and needful of the topic. These based on the study of the wide range of topic not in-depth research on a particular area. The main aim for this type of article is to make awareness of the mass about particular issues or detail facts which the readers need to aware of or sometimes they are interested to kno w to gain a wide range of knowledge. Section B Answer 1 The positivist research philosophy is derived from natural science and is characterized by hypothesis testing and development from the existing theories through the measurement of the social realities. This position assumes that the world exists for different externalities and objectives. The knowledge of the assumption is only valid if it is assumed based on the findings and the observations of any external realities and it needs to develop some theoretical models which can explain the cause and effectiveness of the possible outcomes.Ã
Friday, September 27, 2019
Van Gogh's The Starry Night and Salvador Dali's Persistence of Time - Essay Example The essay "Van Gogh's The Starry Night and Salvador Dali's Persistence of Time" compares "The Starry Night" by Van Gogh with "Persistence of Time" by Salvador Dali. Both paintings are now in the Museum of Modern Art or Moma in New York City. Van Gogh considered his now-iconic The Starry Night, which he painted from his barred window at Saint-RÃ ©my, a failed attempt at abstraction. Before leaving Saint-RÃ ©my, he wrote to Ãâ°mile Bernard: "I have been slaving away on nature the whole year, hardly thinking of impressionism or of this, that and the other. And yet, once again I let myself go reaching for stars that are too big--a new failure--and I have had enough of it. In contrast, Salvador DaliÃ¢â¬â¢s painting of Persistence of Time was a product of DaliÃ¢â¬â¢s evolution as a multi-faceted artist. When the Persistence of Time was painted, Salvador Dali was dabbling in surrealism. But it is important to mention that while Salvador Dali was a leading figure in surrealism and me taphysical painting, he was also interested in science and religion especially after the Hiroshima bombing in the The Second World War where his interest in atom was heightened. Vincent Van Gogh only began painting during the last 10 years of his career. Unlike Salvador Dali who started his career early and already recognized at age 27, Van Gogh was virtually unknown in the artistic world during this lifetime. Van Gogh can also be said to be inclined with religion being a son of a Minister. Dali is more predisposed to science.
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Distributed agile software development - Essay Example Agile principles have been proposed as the best solution for the numerous communication challenges related to Distributed software development. Agile software development refers to a group of software development methodologies that aim to achieve a more nimble and lighter development processed which as a result make them increasingly responsive to change. We can alternatively term agile software development as a group of methods of software development based on both iterative and incremental developments. Additionally, their resolutions and requirements change through a partnership between cross-functional and self-organizing teams (Torgeir, Sridhar, Venu and Nils 2012, p. 1213-1221). Torgeir, Sridhar, Venu and Nils (2012, p. 1213-1221) states that the agile software methodologies are anchored on various principles. The first is to develop software that meet customer requirements. The other principles are accepting any changes that might arise in requirements at any development stage, ensuring there is maintenance of the existing cooperation between the developers and the customers on a daily basis during the project development cycle and lastly being to develop on a test-driven basis which implies writing a test prior to writing a code (Torgeir, Sridhar, Venu and Nils 2012, p. 1213-1221). We can term agility to refer to do away with most of the heaviness in a bid to promoting reception of quick response towards changing environments, the changes in the requirements of the users and accelerating the project deadlines. Distributed agile development processes have been applied with success to many projects. Agile distributed development process has been successfully applied on a project involving a developerÃ¢â¬â¢s team distributed in the academic workspace. We also have the DART project which was a research project on different web applications with one of the main goals being to analyze
An Empirical study of determinants of capital structure of non-financial companies in Egypt before and after the financial crisis - Essay Example The current financial crisis therefore has significantly affected the financial institutions of the world along with other non-financial institutions also. Due to this reason, the overall extension of credit to the non-financial institutions has been affected over the period of time. It is however, important to note that international banks specially working in developing countries have relatively limited contacts or business relationships with the international banks therefore they have not been affected the way international banks have been. In countries like China where the financial sector is mostly under the control of government, banks exposure towards toxic debt is limited therefore despite having the international presence, these banks are not fully affected by these changes. It is also however, critical to understand that there is an indirect threat faced by the international banks due to general decline in the stock prices as well as the falling housing market. Since most of the banks do not keep most of their capital in the form of cash therefore declining asset values will force them to allocate more capital to cover the potential risks. In such an environment there are chances that the overall credit extension to private sector may decline and financial institutions may require the support of their governments to keep them solvent. Theory also suggests that a reduction in the bank credit may result into a decline in the investment activity in the country and this will invariably affect the growth and may result into the creation of unemployment within a country. Since most of the emerging countries such as China, India, Korea and Japan are depending on exports as their major economic variable for growth therefore the current financial crisis may result into the substantial decline in the export business and thus may
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Design and Technology (D&T) - Essay Example Stenhouse (Cited in Armitage, 195) argues that "Curriculum to many in compulsory education, is understood to be the government planned intentions", or "prescribed intended learning outcomes" This definition lends itself to the planning of specific learning targets which can be translated into specific learning outcomes for individual lessons. However this process is not inclusive, as it does not maximise the potential of immediate learner feedback, and therefore reduces the level of learner participation in the learning process. The aims of this study are therefore focused upon the potential role learner feedback or evaluation can play in developing curriculum, facilitating greater learner participation and ownership. The role of Design and Technology in schools on England is evolving. These changes were announced in the Government Green Paper 14-19: Extending Opportunities Raising Standards (DfES, 2002), which argued that education and instruction of 14-19-year-olds should be delivered by a more flexible curriculum with a broad range of options. Beginning in September 2002, Design and Technology was no longer a compulsory school subject from age 14: the age which marks the end of Key Stage 3 of the National Curriculum in England. Students will have a statutory entitlement at KS4 to opt to study D&T subjects, but also more freedom within what was recognised as a very crowded curriculum to select other subjects of their choice. These changes along with the introduction of league tables have had a considerable impact on D&T provision in secondary schools. Hirst (1974: p 110) argues that the wider context of education 'is affected by the motivations of society'; the advent of league tables has evoked increasingly competitive organisations and teachers, along with an increased organisations and teachers, along with an increased orientation towards accountability both on an organizational and individual level. Design and Technology was introduced into the National Curriculum in England and Wales in 1990 (Under the Technology in the National Curriculum Statutory Order, DES and Welsh Office, 1990). Some suggest that this was a response by the government to the importance of technology to the British economy at that time (Layton, 1995). However, most agree that little research evidence existed before the introduction of D&T into the curriculum, on which to base these decisions (DES/Welsh Office, 1988. Section 1.15. Kimbell, Stables &Green, 1996, 17. Penfold, 1988, 5; Shield, 1996, 10). This is also reflected upon the curriculum of the day that was viewed as being 'product' orientated (Bobbitt 1918, 42; 1928. and Tyler, 1949, 89). The underpinning theme being that learners were taught 'what people needed to know in order to work' (Bobbitt, 1918. 42); this orientation towards knowledge focused upon achieving competences. Today still some practical elements of D&T are and will remain competence or skills focused, and therefore influenced by product orientated curriculum of the 1990's. These elements of the D&T curriculum include the correct and safe used of tools and equipment, which are also assessed competences at GCSE level. Nevertheless, its associated distinctive model of teaching and learning had been evolving over the years (Kimbell and Perry, 2001; Penfold 1988, 23). It is claimed that England and Wales were the first
Monday, September 23, 2019
Velocity of Sound - Lab Report Example Sound is often part and parcel of our entire surrounding and has great significance in our daily life. Generally, sound is a form of energy that is majorly produced and propagated through the longitudinal waves. They can also be termed as being elastic waves that requires a medium for transmission. The other fact is that, sound cannot be transmitted through a vacuum. It basically travels in liquids, solids and gases. The rate of velocity of sound varies from one medium to the other. For instance, it is higher in solids as compared to liquids and gases respectively (SpinART, 2002). Sound can be classified as being either musical, noise, high pitched, among other categories. In the undertaken lab experiment, the velocity of sound was measured using a method that is referred to as the KundtÃ¢â¬â¢s tube technique. This was ascertained by allowing the sound to travel through a given metal rod, so as to determine its frequency as well as the speed. Sound is often propagated by longitudinal waves. These are waves whereby the particles movement consists of various oscillations to and fro within the direction and magnitude of propagation. Within a metal rod, sound can either be transmitted by transverse or longitudinal waves. In this lab experiment, longitudinal waves were produced in an air column and a metal rod. The sound frequency was then determined by use of wave motion concept. In this ultimate equation, f is taken as the frequency whileÃ lÃ is the wavelength. When the rod set into vibration through proper stroking, the standing waves are hence produced within the vibrating rod. Due to the clamping of the rod at its mid- point, the clamped point is taken as a node with zero amplitude, whereas the ends that vibrates are taken as antinodes with maximum amplitudes. Vibration of the rod in such a manner means that its wavelength and fundamental frequency are twice the rod length (SpinART, 2002). After assembling
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Lyme Disease and How the Immune System Responds - Research Paper Example Early symptoms are then further divided into localized which usually include a characteristic circular rash, fever, malaise and flu like symptoms. The symptoms of early disseminated infection are mainly due to the spread of the bacteria in the blood stream in two to three days after the initial infection and include dizziness, migrating pain in the muscles, palpitations, neuroborreliosis and infections of the lymph nodes. The disease could also lead to many cardiac anomalies like atrioventricular block. The disease if not treated properly or left untreated could lead to its persistent chronic form. The major parts of the body that are usually affected by this late, chronic form of the disease are eyes, brain and heart. Extreme cases of the disease may also lead to paraplegias. Pathogenesis The pathogenic organism is present in the saliva of the ticks and transferred to the blood stream while the ticks are feeding on the human blood. The tickÃ¢â¬â¢s saliva protects the organism and allows it to invade the dermis while avoiding the initial protective system of the human body. After invasion, an inflammatory response develops against the organism which is usually is the cause of its characteristics initial lesions. Neutorphils however fail to invade the site of infection, enabling the bacteria to survive linger at the site of infection. ... RESPONSE OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM Innate Immunity Innate immune response is usually the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s first and immediate response to any foreign antigen; in this case the bacteria (Borrelia). The cells usually involved in providing the innate immunity are called as the natural killer cells which include neutrophils, dendritic cells, monocytes and granulocytes. However in LymeÃ¢â¬â¢s disease neutrophils usually fail to invade the site of infection which allows the organism to survive for a longer duration. In the absence of neutorphills, the dendritic cells acquire a primary role of killing the pathogen. The dendritic cells engulf the bacteria by the process of phagocytosis. After the bacterium is phagocytosed, it is either killed by lysosomal enzymes or by the production of toxic substances e.g. Nitric Oxide, that degrade bacterial cell membrane leading to its death (Dietrich and Hartung 2001). Dendritic cells having acquired this primary role of killing the cells perform many other f unctions too in the early manifestation of the infection. The dendritic cells cause the release of several mediators e.g. IL8, 12 and 1 as well as TNF alpha. All these mediators released by dendritic cells play an important role in the early defenses against the disease as well as development of the acquired immunity. Complement system Apart from the innate response that is directly involved in the killing of foreign pathogens, one important aspect of immunity against borrelia infection is the activation of the complement system. The complement system is a complex of 20 proteins which are activated by the antigen antibody complexes. Functions of the complement system involves: activation of specific immune mechanisms e.g. release of certain chemical mediators, direct
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Imperial Presidency Essay The Imperial Presidency The Imperial Presidency is a term that was created and made known by Arthur Schlesinger. The term is defined as a belief that the presidency is becoming too powerful. The modern president has many powers that the founding fathers did not intend for them to have. This increase in power has started ever since the formation of president Franklin RooseveltÃ¢â¬â¢s New Deal, and World War II. The term conveys a president that has imperial powers and is authoritarian. The president can make many decisions that the founding fathers did not intend for him to have the power to make. This includes calling a state of emergency, and declaring war without putting it through congress first. These powers are not necessarily bad but they can be taken advantage of. This violates the role the founding fathers intended congress to have. They intended congress to be the center of decision-making. The modern president also has a large Executive staff. It is the presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s staff making big decisions on his behalf that has caused the president to become more powerful. Presidents also have the right to secrecy and they can withhold any information they want from the public. One historical example of Imperial presidency would have to be the role of Colonel Oliver North in the funding to the Contras in Nicaragua, under the presidency of Reagan. This was a huge contravention of a United States Congressional ban, and exemplifies just how much influence and power one member of a large White House staff could have. This was a huge disaster for Reagan and the Government of the United States since it had been Ã¢â¬Å"illegally financing a civil war of the Contra guerrillas against the Sandinista government in Nicaragua. According to the constitution, the president is Command and Chief of the military forces of the United States. Therefore he is able to declare war at any time, without the consent of congress. This is one of the most powerful powers that the president holds. The president also has the power to sign or veto all legislative bills passed by the congress. Thus giving him more power than congress, which is not what is ideally supposed to be, unless Congress over-rides the veto by a two-thirds vote. These are two formal owers that the president uses in order to promote imperial presidency. There are many informal powers that the president uses to expand his role as an imperial president. One of them is the fact that the president has more access to information, knowledge, or expertise than Congress does. This once again puts the president in ahead of congress in being the most powerful. Another informal power the president has is the power to make an executive agreement. An Executive Agree ment is the pact made by the president with heads of foreign nations. They do not need congressional approval. So congress would not have a say in these agreements. Personally, I do believe that the imperial Presidency does exist. It is no news that the presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s executive staff has gradually increased since Roosevelt. These staff members that hold personal loyalty to the president, have powers that they were never intended to have. The power that the White House Chief to Staff position holds is nothing that ever was in the past presidents of the earlier centuries. The large number of officials surrounding the president and only listening to him, along with many other examples, suggests that an imperial presidency certainly does exist. I do believe that an imperial presidency is very necessary right now in the 21st century. The world is becoming more and more powerful, and our country needs a kinglike leader to lead it or else congress will never decide on anything. Congress is now a party based body of government. Their actions tend to focus of what is best for their party rather than what is best for the country.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Vascular Reactivity in Hypertension Vascular Reactivity in Hypertension Introduction High blood pressure (hypertension) is one of the most important preventable causes of morbidity and premature death in the world. The major risk factor for ischemic and myocardial infarction, heart failure, chronic renal failure, premature death, cognitive decline and hemorrhagic stroke is hypertention. Untreated hypertension is usually associated with a progressive increase of blood pressure. Vascular and kidney it can cause lead to a was resistant to treatment Blood pressure is normally distributed in the population and not cut from the natural point above which hypertension is certainly and below which it is not. The associated risk with the increase in blood pressure is continuously, with each increase of 2 mmHg in systolic blood pressure associated with an increased risk of 7% of deaths from ischemic heart disease and 10% increased risk of stroke mortality. Hypertension is very common in the UK and prevalence is strongly influenced by age. In any individual, systolic and / or diastolic pressure can be high. Diastolic pressure increases more frequently in younger people 50. With age, systolic hypertension is becoming a bigger problem because of progressive stiffening and loss of performance of large arteries. At least a quarter of adults (And more than half of those over 60) have high blood pressure. HypertensionÃ¢â¬â¢s clinical management is one of the most common interventions in primary education care, representing about 1 million pounds in just 2006 drug costs. The guideline will accept that prescribers will use a summary of the drug product characteristics to inform decisions with individual patients. This guide recommends drugs for indications where lack of marketing in the world approval on the date of publication, if there is good evidence to support this use. Where recommendations were made for the use of drugs outside their approved indications (off label use ), these drugs are marked with a note in the recommendations. What is hypertension? Before understanding on hypertension, we must have a clear idea on blood pressure. It is the force exerted on artery walls when the heart pumps blood through the circulatory system. Rhythmic contractions of the left ventricle, results in cyclical changes in blood pressure. During ventricular systole, the heart pumps blood through the circulatory system, and the pressure in the arteries is at its highest level; this is called the systolic blood pressure. During diastole, the blood pressure in the system decreases and the diastolic blood pressure (1). Systolic and mean diastolic pressure during the cardiac cycle is the weighted average blood pressure over time; this is called the mean arterial pressure. The alternation of systolic and diastolic creates external and internal motions of the arterial walls, which are perceived as arterial pulsation. Pulse pressure is the difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Blood pressure is regulated by: Central factors; the factors that affect the heart Cardiac output. Heart rate. Peripheral factors: the factors that affect the blood vessels Diameter of blood vessels- Blood pressure is inversely proportional to the diameter of blood vessels. When the diameter is reduced, the peripheral resistance of elevated blood pressure is increased. Blood vessels, especially arterioles are always in a state partially limited due to vasomotor tone. Blood volume Venous return Velocity of blood flow Elasticity of blood vessels Peripheral resistance- Important that keeps this is the diastolic arterial pressure factor. Diastolic pressure is directly proportional to the peripheral resistance Hypertension is high blood pressure. The force of the blood is blood pressure against the walls of arteries as it flows there through. Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the body tissues. A normal systolic blood pressure less than 140 mm Hg: normal diastolic blood pressure less than 90 mmHg Persistent increase in systemic blood pressure is known as hypertension. Clinically, when systolic blood pressure is above 150 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure rises above 90 mmHg, assuming the pressure.(1) Type of hypertension Hypertension has two major types. Primary hypertension Secondary hypertension, Primary hypertension Primary (essential) hypertension is the most common form of hypertension, which represents 90 to 95% of all cases of hypertension. In almost all contemporary societies, the increase in blood pressure with age and the risk of becoming hypertensive adults is appreciable. Hypertension results from a complex interaction of genes and environmental factors. Many common with little effect on genetic variations in blood pressure have been identified as well as some rare genetic variants with large effects on blood pressure but the genetic basis of hypertension is still poorly understood. Several environmental factors influence blood pressure. The lifestyle that lower blood pressure include reducing salt intake in the diet, increased consumption of fruit and low-fat (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)) exercise weight loss and reduced alcohol consumption. Stress seems to play a minor role with specific relaxation techniques not supported by the witness. The possible role of other factors such as caffeine, and vitamin D deficiency is less clear. Insulin resistance, which is common in obesity and is a component of Syndrome X (or Metabolic Syndrome), it is also believed to contribute to hypertension. Recent studies have also implicated in early life events (eg, low birth weight, maternal smoking and lack of breastfeeding) as risk factors for essential hypertension adults although the mechanisms linking this adult hypertension remain obscure exhibitions. Essential hypertension Essential hypertension has a multifactorial etiology Genetic factors Blood pressure tends to run in families and children of hypertensive parents tend to have high blood pressure. Children and parents of the same age with normal blood pressure. Fetal factors Subsequent hypertension pressure associate with low birth weight Environmental factors Among the many environmental factors that have been proposed, the following seems to be the most important: Obesity Alcohol intake Sodium intake Stress Humoral mechanisms The renin-angiotensin system and the autonomic nervous system, and the natriuretic peptide system, kallikrein-kinin plays a role in the physiological regulation of short term Changes in blood pressure and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension. Insulin resistance An association between diabetes and hypertension has a long syndrome was recognized and described in hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, reduced levels of HDL cholesterol hypertriglyceridemia and central obesity in association hypertension. Secondary hypertension Secondary hypertension is where the elevation of blood pressure is the result of a specific and potentially treatable cause. Secondary forms of hypertension are: Endocrine hypertension: This develops due to hyperactivity of endocrine glands as some Conns syndrome Cushings syndrome adrenal hyperplasia Neurogenic hypertension: Disorders of the nervous system that produce hypertension are Increased intracranial pressure Sectioning of nerve fibers from carotid sinus Renal hypertension: Renal diseases that cause hypertension are diabetic nephropathy chronic glomerulonephritis chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis Hypertension during pregnancy: The arterial blood pressure is increased by the low glomerular filtration rate and retention of sodium and water. Cardiovascular hypertension: This occurs due to cardiovascular disorders such as, Atherosclerosis : hardening of blood vessels coarctation of aorta : narrowing of aorta Drugs: There are many medications that cause or aggravate hypertension. NSAIDs, oralcontraceptives, steroids, carbenoxolone, liquorice, sympathomimetic and vasopressin. Experimental hypertension Hypertension can be produced in practical animals by various methods. Can be produced by, Clamping the renal artery Denervation of baroreceptors in carotid sinus and aortic arch Injections of corticosteroids Infusion of salts with aldosterone Manifestation of hypertension Left ventricular failure Renal failure Cerebral hemorrhage Retinal hemorrhage Treatments for hypertension Primary hypertension can be controlled but not cured. Secondary hypertension but is cured by treatment of hypertension in the cause of disease. Different types of antihypertensive drugs are given. Diuretics: Cause diuresis and reduce the volume of extracellular fluid and blood. So blood pressure is decreased Vasodilators: Cause vasodilation reducing the blood pressure. Inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme: Blood pressure is reduced due to formation of angiotensin is blocked. Beta blockers: Beta blockers block the sympathetic beta receptors. Thus, cardiac output is reduced. Inhibits vasoconstriction leading to drop in blood pressure. Calcium channel blockers: Calcium channel in the myocardium are blocked by these drugs reduce myocardial contractility. Cardiac output to the drop in blood pressure is reduced (3). What is the vascular reactivity? Vascular reactivity is essential in vascular function that allows the circulatory system to respond to physiological and pharmacological stimuli which require adjustment of blood flow and the vascular tone and diameter. Vascular reactivity occurs in two modes. Reactivity are vasoconstrictor and vasodilator reactivity. These forms may be exposed to levels both microvascular and macrovascular. Vascular reactivity in hypertension Vascular reactivity in humans has been studied in many different conditions with a variety of methods. The most effective methods use either intra-arterial or intravenous infusion after inhibition of sympathetic outflow and interpret the changes in flow and pressure in terms of work instead of vasoconstriction of resistance. Using these methods, the vascular reactivity to various substances, including norepinephrine and angiotensin II has been found to be increased in essential hypertension, but not in various types of renal hypertension. Some studies have shown that alpha-methyldopa, guanethidine and increased vascular reactivity, although lower blood pressure. Glucocorticoids increase reactivity in normotensive subjects, but not in patients with essential hypertension. Aldosterone and salt increased vascular reactivity, especially in hypertensive patients, but slightly in normotensive individuals (2). Vascular reactivity to different vasopressors has been extensively studied in different types of hypertension in experimental animals. The mechanisms underlying this hyper-responsiveness and its role in the development of hypertension are unclear. But, it has been suggested that high blood pressure may induce structural changes in the vessel wall adaptation, resulting in an increase of the wall: lumen ratio. This could responsible for the increase in vascular reactivity vasoconstrictors stimuli (4). Increased vascular reactivity in hypertension occurs in response to a variety of vasoconstrictor agents, epinephrine, norepinephrine, posterior pituitary extracts, tyramine and renin. Exposure to stress increases sympathetic outflow, and vasoconstriction induced stress can lead to vascular hypertrophy, which leads to progressive increases in peripheral resistance and blood pressure is repeated. People with a family history of hypertension and sympathetic vasoconstrictor obvious stressors increased laboratory tests such as cold and mental stress responses(5). Vascular reactivity to endothelin in hypertensive patients Endothelin is a potent vasoconstrictor substance as produced by the cardiovascular system. Therefore, a pathophysiological role of this peptide has been proposed under these conditions, such as hypertension, characterized by the increased vascular tone. The vasoconstrictor response to endothelin-1 is slightly higher in hypertensive patients than in normal subjects. There is an increase of the activity of the vascular endothelin in patients with essential hypertension, which may be the pathophysiological relevance to their increased vascular tone (6).Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ãâ Vascular reactivity to catecholamine in hypertensive patients In hereditary essential hypertension, vascular reactivity is increased to vasoactive substances which act on the vascular sympathetic neuronal receptor complex and. Since this increase in reactivity is present in early disease progression and even pre-essential hypertension and associated with certain abnormal metabolism of catecholamines, this is probably an etiological factor. Inherited hypertension is probably caused by an abnormal gene or genes produce an abnormal protein or proteins that directly or indirectly affect sympathetic neural and systemic vascular contractile receptor sites (7). Established in human hypertension, baroreceptor mechanisms remain active. But the blood pressure is maintained at a high level again in place of the normal blood pressure. This process is known as reset baroreceptor. The upward adjustment of these baroreceptors occurs not only in the primary or essential hypertension, high blood pressure, but also secondary to renal disease or other types. In most patients with established hypertension, catecholamine excretion is within normal limits so that if the neurological part kept the blood pressure is increased in pressure, is probably the result of an increased effect activity nerve rather than an increase in the activity itself. This could occur by an increase in the sensitivity of the blood vessels to the endogenous norepinephrine produced by the sympathetic nerve endings. The hypertensive patients have a significantly greater response to norepinephrine than normal subjects. There are a number of possible relationships between increased vascular reactivity and high blood pressure. An important preliminary to elucidating the significance of the altered vascular reactivity is to determine whether it represents a metabolic or a structural vascular abnormality, which causes high blood pressure, or whether it is one of the ways in which a rise in blood pressure, initiated by some other mechanism, becomes an established change (8). After administrating norepinephrine to the patients with essential hypertension, it has been proven that the initial constriction of vessels is greater in hypertensive individuals than in normotensive individual. Hypertensive patients had a significantly higher response to norepinephrine than normal subjects. There are a number of possible relationships between increased vascular reactivity and high blood pressure. An important preliminary to elucidate the importance of altered vascular reactivity is whether it represents a metabolic abnormality or structural vascular, causing high blood pressure, or is one of the means by which an increase in blood pressure he started by another mechanism, becomes a set rate . After the administration of norepinephrine in patients with essential hypertension, it has been shown that constriction of blood vessels is higher than initial hypertensive than in normotensive subjects(9) . Reference Paul A. Iaizzo. Hand book of cardiac anatomy, physiology, and devices. Totowa: Humana Press; 2005. p. 181-182 Kim E. Barrett, Susan M. Barman, Scott Boitano, Heddwen L. Brooks. GanongÃ¢â¬â¢s review of medical physiology. 24th ed. New Delhi: McGraw-Hill; 2012. p. 590-592 Kumar Clark Clinical medicine 6E (857-864) A. E. Doyle, J. R. E. Fraser. Vascular reactivity in hypertension. Journal of the American heart association. 1961; vol 9: 755-761 Milton Mendlowitz. Vascular reactivity in essential and renal hypertension in man. American heart journal.1967; vol 73. Issue 1: 121-128 and Milton Mendlowitz. Vascular reactivity in systemic arterial hypertension. American heart journal.1973vol 85.issue 2: 252-259 B. K. Bhattacharya, N. K. Dadkar, A. N. Dohadwalla. Vascular reactivity of perfused vascular bed in spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive rats. Br. J. pharmac.1977;59:243-246 Carmine Cardillo, Crescence M. Kilcoyne, Myron Waclawiw, Richard O. Cannon, Julio A. Panza. Role of endothelin in the increased vascular tone of patients with essential hypertension. American heart association.1998.vol 65. James Conway. Vascular reactivity in experimental hypertension measured after hexmethonium. Journal of the American heart association.1958; 17:807-810
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Typical Pastoral Guidelines For Ministry to Homosexuals This essay takes a typical Catholic parish and presents the guidelines used by this parish in the treatment of gay/les types. The guidelines illustrate the welcoming attitude of this church toward gays. The guidelines are pastoral in character, intended to help priests and parish ministers meet their obligation to serve kindly and conscientiously all who turn to the Church with real needs and honest hope. They do not presume any particular social or psychological analysis of sexuality in our society, except for a generally accepted premise that individuals do choose and can change their sexual orientation and must understand it and integrate it into their life of faith and conscience. The guidelines accept, without elaborating, the perennial teaching of the Catholic Church on sexual morality, conscience, and personal sin. Deeper probing of the ground of this teaching and the contemporary challenges to it must be left to the educational efforts proposed in these guidelines. The guidelines also accept the teaching of the Catholic Church on social ethics but do not propose a social action agenda. When the voice or action of the Church is needed in the religious or secular forum, appropriate agents of the parish and diocese will be informed and enlisted to uphold basic human and civil rights against social or legal discrimination, harassment, intimidation, or violence. The guidelines do not resolve the dilemma surrounding terminology. "Homosexual" seems clear and objective but has come to be regarded by some as too clinical and impersonal, with unwarranted implications of pathology, inferiority, or alienation. "Gay" and "l... ...ll establish its own organization and procedures to address its principal tasks: (a) to inform and advise the bishop on all aspects of this ministry; (b) to enlist the interest and cooperation of diocesan agencies in implementing these guidelines; (c) to recommend, promote, or provide, in consultation with these agencies, programs of education and information. The Pastoral Resource Committee will regularly evaluate and recommend publications to support these education programs or the personal study resources for pastoral ministers. The Pastoral Resource Committee will evaluate, in accord with these guidelines, organizations to be served, consulted, or enlisted in this ministry. There we have it - a pastoral approach to gay/les members. WORKS CITED: "To Live in Christ Jesus," 1976 US Conference of Catholic Bishops
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
The overgrowing demand for governmental agencies has grown tremendously since the 18th century. Originally George Washington in 1789 had only three government departments, Treasury, Foreign Affairs, and War. With the end of the Civil War, many problems arose and so did the bureaucracy. In 1870 much of the problems were remedied with the creation of the Department of Justice. Starting in the 19th century the size of the federal executive branch and the bureaucracy expanded as demand for new departments also grew. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã With the rise of the new national government many Anti-Federalists feared that it had exceeded its desired size. When at one point nine people controlled a department, now hundreds of government employees are appointed to the jobs. The continual downfall of the representation of the people has brought huge controversy over how to accommodate the needs of the people properly. For example, if a farmer has a bad growing season due to a flood or drought, he needs local advice and a loan to help him through a cashless crop season. To help improve this situation local representation should be established. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In the early days of the telephone there was no competition for phone service providers like there is now. With no competition the phone company (Bell) was able to have a monopoly and run up the prices for a call. The national government would recommend a change in rates but the phone company would take its time with the decision taking days, months, or even years. To change this, the federal government should go after monopolies and allow competition on the local level. By increased competition, it would keep prices at a honest level and keep things market driven which would make for a more creative and competitive environment. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã There are many different ways that Anti-Federalist could make the bureaucracy more responsive to the people.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Usually when the word gender is used in a political sense often times what is described is the role of women in a certain aspect of politics. This paper is a look at certain social norms that are directly related to women and their rights that seem to allow and harbor terrorist. The idea of the article that I am basing this paper on is by Amy Caiazza Ph.D. who suggests that if we were to change some of our ways in society regarding women we might have been able to foresee the events of the September 11th attacks. Historically women have taken a back seat to men in almost every aspect of life we were always second choice. Fortunately for us as the time moves forward we see a dramatic increase in the role that women play in society today. Though our progress has been great there are still women who are not satisfied with the place in society that women have. Locally here in the U.S. women have it pretty good and most of them tend not to complain but there are those feminist that want women abroad to be able to experience the same freedoms that the women of America enjoy and some times take for granted. Women in our traditional roles or as some may say in our natural state are known as the child bearers, family care takers, household keeper, and nurturer of all. The list that I just stated is only the beginning of what a woman can do. In other countries for example in Afghanistan in 1997 when the now popular Taliban first came into power they put into practice a radical form of Islamic rule known as Sharia. This radical rule that they governed with limited women in so many ways the women of Afghanistan were not allowed to educate themselves. These women were also not allowed to participate in any form of activism and were not able to even have a physical position in their own society. When women have been found in violation of these rules the end results were never too good. In fact many women have been beaten and put to death once they were caught breaking the rules. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã These acts of disrespect and violence against women are no secret to the United States of America. America jokingly is often called the world police and is known for Ã¢â¬Å"sticking their nose in other peoples businessÃ¢â¬ but for some unknown reason they have taken no action against the Taliban for these injustices they are imposing on the women of Afghanistan.
Dreams are often derived from the inner thresholds of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts and repressed emotions. My dreams have been significantly complex, converging into metamorphic symbols that relate to significant past and present events. After a week of dream analysis, I believe dreams have an effect on both my conscious and unconscious thoughts. Analyzing these dreams has begun to reveal the inner meanings behind my thoughts, and lead to prosperous revelations. To correlate the meaning and reasoning of the concept of dreams, I have analyzed my most significant dream from the points of view of Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung and the activation synthesis methods. Upon the conclusion of my research, the theories of both Freud and Jung contain the most valid perspective as to the true meaning of my dream. Sigmund Freud was a brilliant Psychoanalyst, who opened new doors pertaining to how mental illnesses were treated. In the novel The World of Ideas by Lee Jacobus, he explains that Freud, in the minds of many, is recognized as the founder of modern Psychiatry (Jacobus 475). Freud developed the psychoanalytic method: which is the examination of the mind using dream analysis, Lee further explains that Ã¢â¬Å"the analysis of the unconscious through free association, and the correlation of findings with attitudes toward sexuality and sexual developmentÃ¢â¬ (Jacobus 75). Meaning, dreams can reveal more than what typically meets the eye. Jacobus explains that In FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Interpretation of DreamsÃ¢â¬ he states, Ã¢â¬Å"the unconscious works in complex ways to help us cope with feelings and desires that our superego deems unacceptableÃ¢â¬ (Jacobs 475). Sigmund explains his methods by comparing it to two great plays that he felt expressed individuals having repressed emotions. Freud states Ã¢â¬Å"one merely carries on during the night and in dreams with what one has been turning over in ones mind during the dayÃ¢â¬ (Freud 483). Meaning, if one has guilt or an undeniable pleasure that one canÃ¢â¬â¢t express, dreams will covey the ones incapable emotions. Jacobus further explains that Freud is conveying, Ã¢â¬Å"that dreams are wish-fulfillmentsÃ¢â¬ (Jacobus 477). For example in FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s prospective; he suggests that if one is to worry about a parent, it might really convey the unconscious wish that the parent should die. FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s main method in interpreting dreams was mainly focused on repressed emotions and the undeniable feelings towards sexuality and sexual feelings. Carl Jung and Sigmund Freud are very similar to the reference of batman and robin. Freud is being the character of batman, and Robin being Jung. Carl worked along side with Freud collaborating the mind through the interpretation of dreams. Just like any duo, Jung wanted to explore beyond what his leader justified as acceptable. Jung decided the unconscious content of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s mind is based on just a theory, insisting that images in dreams are not only related to personal experiences, but are also inherited, exploring the unconscious component of the mind. It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t only persist to just the personal unconscious, but also pertaining to the collective unconscious. In JungÃ¢â¬â¢s The Personal and the Collective Unconscious, Carl interprets and re examines FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s speculations of the unconscious and explores different theories that explain the analysis of the mind. Jung agrees with many of FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s theories, but he branches out from his theories creating a diverse intellectual reasoning in which he connects it to different archetypes, further explaining dreams in terms of a Ã¢â¬Å"collective and personal unconsciousÃ¢â¬ . Jung believed that archetypes described peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviors and personalities. According to the Webster Dictionary Archetypes are visual symbols that exist in our mind, Ã¢â¬Å"some are clearly understood but others bring subliminal messages that are there to help you trigger your memory of why you are here and the truth behind the illusions of realityÃ¢â¬ . Jacobus further elaborates that Jung connects the archetypes to the analysis that explains the dream in terms of collective unconsciousness, which is shared by groups of people rather than created by the individual alone (Jacobus pg 489). Though JungÃ¢â¬â¢s theories we deemed unacceptable in FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes, his theories investigating the inner unconscious and conscious thoughts pertaining to inherited thoughts and symbolic archetypes, which revealed new ways of unraveling the inner workings of the complexity of the mind. My hands were shaking, lips quivering and my heart exploding. Everything seemed calm but my feelings enticed that something is terribly wrong. When the panic took hold, my heart rate picked up itÃ¢â¬â¢s pace. I could see my heart beating out of my chest so I wanted to believe that my eyes were deceiving me. Running on instinct I had no idea where I was going. All of a sudden right before my eyes a huge swirling hole of vast darkness appears. My body feels as if it is going limp, my breath is taking right out of my lungs, then suddenly I hear a scream. It was a horrifying scream, to make matters worse I see someone in the black hole. Nothing can me made out clearly, everything is so blurry. As my emotions run wild through my body, there is a known connection. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s as if I can feel their pain and am thriving off of their emotions. I think to myself that I must save this person. I run to the black hole, but there is an invisible force that is preventing me from reaching them. The entirety of my soul goes numb as I coldly fall to the earth. Desperately gasping for air and an answer this person begins to disappear. I can feel everything that they are feeling. The feeling of being lost, the confusion of being hopeless and the madness that comes with anger. No matter how much effort was given, no matter how much I cared. There was nothing that could have been done. As my eyes opened, it was all a dream. Freud believed according to Jacobus that Ã¢â¬Å" The repression of important emotions, a constant process, often results in dreams that express repressed feelings in harmless and sometimes symbolic waysÃ¢â¬ (Jacobus 477). In FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion he would probably insist that the person falling into the hole that I was desperately trying to help, is a symbolic emotion of having repressed guilty feelings. Insisting that I have a guilty conscious about something I have done or something or someone I have lost. Freud would also suggest that I have repressed sexual feelings for someone very close to me; even interpreting that the black hole is a symbol for guilty conscious or symbolizing my feelings of hopelessness, that I will never be able to have an intimate personal relationship with that mystery person. Lastly I feel that Freud could also interpret this dream as fulfilling a wish. Freud states Ã¢â¬Å"This worry can only make its way into the dream by availing itself of the corresponding wish; while the wish can disguise itself behind the worry that has become active during the dayÃ¢â¬ (Freud 483). Meaning, maybe I wish that I could save that invisible person, or maybe I have repressed feelings because I never got to be openly honest with how I feel or how I want to feel with this individual. This dream correlates to many aspects that both Jung and Freud express in their studies. In JungÃ¢â¬â¢s analysts he considers not only personal experiences as a factor to analyzing dreams, but information that we unconsciously know. In the hand out Traditional Archetypes it states Ã¢â¬Å"Carl Jung introduced a theory that humans have a collective unconscious, which means that there is a store of information that we as humans somehow hold. This collection of information includes archetypes or symbolic figuresÃ¢â¬ . Interpreting my dream from JungÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view, he would insist that this dream is unraveling a message, a bigger broader picture then someone just falling into a black hole. I feel that Jung would speculate that the person in the black hole could relate to the archetype of Ã¢â¬Å"The fatal women or temptressÃ¢â¬ . Prevailing, that this person in the black hole is holding me back, that this mystery person does not want to be saved, causing me to look like the weaker individual. Intentionally causing me pain and a guilty conscious. There are many archetypes that could be identified as the main character, the dreamer if you will. Jung could also interpret that I was the archetype of Ã¢â¬Å"the childÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"the victimÃ¢â¬ due to the feelings of helplessness and feelings of an emotional tragedy. The activation- synthesis methods would describe in my opinion the dreams of a younger child, or a person who may not be well connected with their dreams. In these methods, neutral brain activity triggers random visual memories that may or may not have relevance to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s current situations. We can however get information about the dreamer from these methods due to the types of memories that are recalled. The reason I do not believe these methods are relevant to my dream is because this dream was very passionate. Although other dreams that I recorded did seem relevant to this theory, I believe that I chose this dream because it actually had some correlation to what is going on in my life. If I decided to analyze a more random simple dream that I had last week it could have been defined through the activation-synthesis method. The thread of dreams can be not only unraveled, but the thoughts and repressed emotions can be in disarray and difficult to properly express. Interpreting my dreams from the points of view of Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, and the activation- synthesis methods not only helped me reveal the inner emotions that have been hidden behind the wall of sorrow. It has given a sort of gratitude that made me look at dreams in a whole new optimistic attitude. I have concluded that Freud and JungÃ¢â¬â¢s theories have given a relevant perception as to what my dream mean, and what it revealed about my inner feelings.
Monday, September 16, 2019
In this TMA I have met the ethical requirements of the E105. I complied with the ethical guidance published by BERA, 2011 under the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) by informing parents and giving them the option to withdraw their child from participating; as some children were of an age where they had a limited understanding of the purpose of the investigation (BERA, Guidelines 16 Ã¢â¬â 21, 2011). I explained to parents and colleagues why I was carrying out the observations, and that I would comply with the Data Protection Act 1998 by making my findings anonymous and it will only read by my tutor. I reassured parents that the welfare of the children was paramount and would not be affected by my investigation. If for any reason their child refused to participate or became distressed, then I would immediately terminate my observation. I gained consent from children in a sensitive way and ensured that my investigation was not a hindrance in their care, learning & development. Activity 3. 13 (Block 3, pg 57) helped me in planning my method to approach children to gain their consent. Introduction This assignment is based on an investigation I carried at my setting on the play and learning experiences provided for four year olds. My key question on which I based my investigation was: How I could make childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s play and learning experiences fun and enjoyable? The United Convention on the Rights of a Child (UNCRC) says that Ã¢â¬ËEvery child and young person has the right to rest, play and leisureÃ¢â¬â¢. (UNCRC, Article 31, 1989) Play can be interpreted in various ways however in the context of a setting; I understand play as an experience in which children have fun, enjoy and learn at the same time. Being the manager and room leader I have a major influence on the learning experiences provided for the children. I therefore decided to investigate the impact of my current planning and provision on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s play experiences. In my observations I looked at childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËdispositionÃ¢â¬â¢ to the play experiences I had provided (Katz, 1993) cited in E100. I used the Leaven Involvement Scale for Young Children (Leavers, 1994) which highlights signals that help measure how involved a child is in the activity. A child would be involved and engaged with an activity if it was enjoyable and stimulating. In my discussion I analyse my practice based on the investigation and then discuss my changing values and beliefs and the impact it has had on my practice in relation to promoting childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s play, learning and development. [241 Words] Analysing my practice: In my setting I was finding it difficult to balance between focused and free play activities for four year olds in order to meet the Ã¢â¬Ëearly learning goalsÃ¢â¬â¢ set out by the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS, 2008), therefore I decided to investigate this area of my practice. I carried out Ã¢â¬Ëtracking observationsÃ¢â¬â¢ (Block 3, pg: 52) on three children aged four, two boys and a girl, as there are more boys than girls at my setting. I observed each child using the suggestions made by Devereux J, Observing children (Reader 2, chapter 8) over a period of three days. I was a Ã¢â¬Ëcomplete observerÃ¢â¬â¢ during the first day of my observations so that maximum information could be attained. I was a Ã¢â¬Ëparticipant observerÃ¢â¬â¢ on the second and third day (Block 3, pg: 46). I wrote field notes during the observations, then added detail later using recommendations by Lofland and Lofland (1995) (Block 3, pg: 52). The emerging pattern in my observations on Day 1 was that all three children enjoyed undirected play, and were more involved in the experiences when it was self chosen. However on Day 2 and 3 they were equally involved in adult-led play experiences, when they were planned based on their interests seen on Day 1 and at the edge of their capabilities, Ã¢â¬Ëzone of proximal developmentÃ¢â¬â¢ (Vygotsky, 1962) (Block 3, pg: 24). (Appendix 2). Adam and Sara were often seen in the home corner. It seemed as though they had created their own play world, where they would not be disturbed. They were seen taking various resources to explore in the home corner. In observation1 (Appendix 1a, lines 8-13) the practitioner is seen demonstrating the socio cultural theory in the way she extends Adam and SaraÃ¢â¬â¢s learning by Ã¢â¬ËscaffoldingÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëguided participationÃ¢â¬â¢ (Rogoff, 2003), She is being Ã¢â¬Ësensitive to their zone of proximal developmentÃ¢â¬â¢ (Woodhead, 2008, pg: 162) (Block 3, pg: 24). John was seen engaging in imaginative play in the Ã¢â¬Ëmini worldÃ¢â¬â¢ where he was imitating the sounds of the different animals as he was playing with them. (Appendix: 1h, lines 61-66). His play fits into the constructivist view where he is Ã¢â¬Ëactively engaged in testing and refiningÃ¢â¬â¢ his understanding (mental mode). A similar view can be seen my observation (Appendix: 1f, lines 42-51), where John demonstrates what Piaget (1951) would call Ã¢â¬Ëdiscovery learningÃ¢â¬â¢ in the way he innovates a new painting technique. My organisation of the activity provided an experience for children where peer-peer interaction was encouraged (symmetrical relationship). There was scope for Ã¢â¬Ëcognitive conflictÃ¢â¬â¢. (Block 3. Pg 23), which was demonstrated by the way Sara and Adam learnt a new skill of painting from John (Appendix 1b& 1e). The Ã¢â¬Ëchange of routine songÃ¢â¬â¢ sang by the practitioner (Appendix 1i, lines 68) demonstrated the behaviourist theory, Ã¢â¬Ëstimuli and responseÃ¢â¬â¢ (Block 3, pg: 20). Hearing and watching the practitioner, John immediately knew that it was snack time. [483 Words] Changing values and beliefs: I used the Ã¢â¬Ëthree-layer modelÃ¢â¬â¢ and the RP cycle in Block 3, activity 3. 23 to help me unfold my underlying beliefs and practices with regards to how children learn. In Ã¢â¬Ëstage 1Ã¢â¬â¢ I believed that play is important for children in the early years and that children learnt best through play, however when exploring my practice, in Ã¢â¬Ëstage 2Ã¢â¬â¢ I found out that at my setting I lay great emphasis on adult let activities for 4 and 5 year olds. I saw their play as time passing in between the focused activities and disregarded this as an active opportunity for learning. When taking the role of a Ã¢â¬Ëcomplete observerÃ¢â¬â¢ during my investigation I realised how much children were learning during self chosen play experiences. During Ã¢â¬Ëstage 3Ã¢â¬â¢ of the RP cycle I found that the regular group sessions that I was arranging for the 4 and 5 year olds were far from play. In fact it mainly consisted of direct teaching with EYFS goals in mind. Children achieved some of the goals set; however they did not enjoy the activity (Appendix 2). It seemed as if the children were eager to complete the task so that they could go back to playing (Appendix 1c & 1g). At the end of the each session, I asked Adam, John and Sara what they liked most about their nursery day (Appendix 5). On the first day all three participants chose an activity that was self chosen; however on the second day, two of the participants chose focus activities and on the third day all the participants chose focus activities. This made me realise that planned focused activities were equally enjoyable if they were based on the interests of the children involved. This investigation gave me a better understanding of the EYFS principle: a Ã¢â¬Ëunique childÃ¢â¬â¢ (DCSF, 2008a). It made me realise how important it was to plan play experiences based on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s interests; rather than on the Ã¢â¬ËgoalsÃ¢â¬â¢ set by the EYFS. When I planned adult led play experiences on the second and third day based on my observations of each childÃ¢â¬â¢s interests; they were more involved in the activity and also achieved many of the EYSF goals. (See plan in appendix 3) My practice is similar to that described by Sexton L, 2012 on the tutor group forum, where I use a combination of all three theories in my practice but in different contexts. Gilchrist J. 2012, posting made me think about my practice in how she uses Ã¢â¬Ëchildren who are more able in our setting to support others who are more reluctant to take part and encourage them to learn from each otherÃ¢â¬â¢. I currently use a constructivist view when planning focus activities for children based on their ages and abilities, Ã¢â¬Ëstages of developmentÃ¢â¬â¢ (Block 3. Pg 23); however if I was to use the Socio constructivist approach and mix group them, then there would be scope for Ã¢â¬Ëpeer-to-peer learningÃ¢â¬â¢, where children would learn from the Ã¢â¬Ëmore able otherÃ¢â¬â¢ in a more social way. [507 Words] Changing practice: Using the Ã¢â¬Ëcontinuum of pedagogical approaches (DCSFa, 2009)Ã¢â¬â¢ (Block 3, pg: 27) I found that the play experiences I currently provided for 4 and 5 year olds were a mixture of Ã¢â¬Ëchild-initiatedÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ëfocused learningÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëhighly structuredÃ¢â¬â¢ approaches however my main approach was Ã¢â¬Ëfocused learningÃ¢â¬â¢ for 4 and 5 year olds. Observing children during my investigation made me see a wealth of knowledge and learning emerging from each other; which I previously overlooked. An example of this can be seen in appendix 1, where Adam and Sarah made the home corner into a shop and defined their roles as Ã¢â¬Ëshop keepersÃ¢â¬â¢. I underestimated childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s capabilities and their ability for independent learning. From my investigation, I saw the positive impact of focus activities when they were innovative and planned on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s interests. This is also a requirement of the EYFS, Ã¢â¬Ëphysical and mental challengesÃ¢â¬ ¦active learningÃ¢â¬â¢ (Principle 4. 2, DCFS, 2008) I particularly liked the Ã¢â¬Ëpainting outsideÃ¢â¬â¢ that I saw on the DVD and set up a similar activity in the outdoor area. This encouraged participation of many children including some who generally did not take an interest in painting or Ã¢â¬Ëmark-makingÃ¢â¬â¢. (Refer to Appendix 4, feedback from a colleague). I discussed some of the play experiences provided by other practitioners that I came across during my Block 3 reading with my staff during our weekly planning meeting; some of my staff acknowledged the enjoyment of children during the innovative play experiences that I had provided as I was Ã¢â¬Ëexploring my practiceÃ¢â¬â¢. They shared positive feedback from parents of some of their key children who also noticed a change in their childÃ¢â¬â¢s learning experience. I used this as an opportunity to motivate my staff to research innovative play experiences for children. I recommended them to use the internet; particularly the Ã¢â¬ËtesÃ¢â¬â¢ (teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s site for education resources) to access a range of creative play experiences for the foundation stage. During the meeting staff raised concerns that, having 35 children in the setting, it is not practical to plan play experiences based on each childÃ¢â¬â¢s interests; therefore we agreed on setting up a rota system, where two of each key personÃ¢â¬â¢s children are observed each week and their observed interests are used to plan play experiences for the following week, during which a second set of children would be observed I realised how important it was to observe children; yet it can be quite difficult for practitioners to do so regularly with other responsibilities; I therefore set up a rota system where they have observation days on which the staff member in only observing and does not get involved directly with the children unless required. Influenced by Anning A. and Edwards A. (2010) Ã¢â¬ËCreating contexts for professional developmentÃ¢â¬â¢ in reader 2, chapter 24, I shared my findings with an Early Years Consultant from the local authority and arranged a staff training session to help us incorporate a more play based curriculum for children. [490 Words] Conclusion From my investigation and data analysis, I concluded that careful planning of play experiences, using innovative styles and taking childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s interests into consideration proved to be effective in providing an enjoyable learning experience for the children. I strongly believe that the planning cycle should start from observations of children rather than based on adult decided themes as was my practice previously. A balance of free play and focused activities is important to ensure that children enjoy their learning experience. Practitioners should take the lead from children and extend their learning by joining in their play, rather than direct teaching. Focus activities that were hands-on proved to be effective in providing an enjoyable learning experience for children and achieving the EYFS Ã¢â¬Ëearly learning goalsÃ¢â¬â¢ (DCSF, 2008) (refer to appendix 3) The physical organisation of the setting can give strong messages to children. It is important to give children the Ã¢â¬Ëfree use of spaceÃ¢â¬â¢. Ã¢â¬ËTo be structured so they (the children) can be unstructuredÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëthe freedom to control themselvesÃ¢â¬â¢ (Hartley 1993:63) cited in Reader 2, pg 220. This can be seen in observation 1a where Sara and Adam were able to move the furniture to make their Ã¢â¬ËshopÃ¢â¬â¢. [198 word] Self-reflection I found this assignment very interesting as it gave me an opportunity to step away from my role as a manager and look deep into the actual learning of individual children. I found it difficult deciding on which evidence to submit as I was limited to three pieces. [49 words] References: Anning A and Edwards A, (2010) Creating contexts for professional development in Miller, L. , Cable, C. , and Goodliff, G (eds) Supporting ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Learning in the Early Years, Abington, David Fulton in association with The Open University. British Educational Research Association (BERA, 2011) Ethical guidance for Educational Research, London, 2011 Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) (2008) Practice Guidance for the Early Years Foundation Stage, Nottingham, DCSF Draper L and Duffy B, (2010) Working with parents in Cable, C. , Miller, L. and Goodliff, G (eds) Working with children in the Early Years, Abington, David Fulton in association with The Open University. Gilchrist J. (2012) Ã¢â¬ËBlue group-week1 activityÃ¢â¬â¢, E105 11J Tutor group forums, 30th of January 2012 (online), http://learn. open. ac. uk/mod/forumng/discuss. php? d=836298 (Accessed 1st February 2012) Laevers F (1994) Effective Early Learning Programme: Child Involvement Scale, in Bertram T and Pascal C, Centre for Research in Early Childhood, Birmingham (online) http://www. decd. sa. gov. au/farnorthandaboriginallands/files/links/link_104984. pdf cited on 20th January 2012. Moss P, (2010) The democratic and reflective professional in Miller, L. , Cable, C. , and Goodliff, G (eds) Supporting ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Learning in the Early Years, Abington, David Fulton in association with The Open University. Paige-smith A and Craft A, (2010) Reflection and developing a community of practice in Miller, L. , Cable, C. , and Goodliff, G (eds) Supporting ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Learning in the Early Years, Abington, David Fulton in association with The Open University. Read M and Rees M, (2010) Working in teams in early years settings in Cable, C. , Miller, L. and Goodliff, G (eds) Working with children in the Early Years, Abington, David Fulton in association with The Open University. Robson S (2010) The physical environment in Miller, L. , Cable, C. , and Goodliff, G (eds) Supporting ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Learning in the Early Years, Abington, David Fulton in association with The Open University. Sexton L. (2012) Ã¢â¬ËBlue group-week1 activityÃ¢â¬â¢, E105 11J Tutor group forums, 16th February 2012 (online), http://learn. open. ac. uk/mod/forumng/discuss. php? d=836298 (Accessed 18th February 2012) The TES-Education jobs, Teaching resources and magazine & forums. Website: www. tes. co. uk/ The Open University (2010), E105 Assessment Guide 2010, Milton Keynes, The Open University The Open University, E100 Early years practice: Practitioners and children 2010, Study Topic 3, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The Open University, E105 Developing reflective practice: key themes, 2010, Block 3, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The Open University (2010) E105 The early years: developing practice, Ã¢â¬ËDVD 2: Painting outside, Milton Keynes, The Open University. Appendix1 Observation on Day 1: Adam 1a) 12:50 pm Home cornerEngagement according to Leuven scale (LS): 5 Adam gets some magnets from the resource cupboard and takes it to the home cornerÃ¢â¬ ¦ He then gets behind the drawer and says, Ã¢â¬Ëlets make a shop Sara. Come hereÃ¢â¬â¢. He indicated to Sara to come next to him. A practitioner comes up to him and says, Ã¢â¬Ëwhy did you move the furniture? Put it back the way it was please. Ã¢â¬â¢ He looks at Sara as he wants her to answer. When the practitioner physically starts to move the drawer back Adam speaks up saying: Ã¢â¬ËweÃ¢â¬â¢re making a shopÃ¢â¬â¢. Ã¢â¬ËWow really! What kind of shop? Ã¢â¬â¢ she asks. Ã¢â¬ËToy shopÃ¢â¬â¢ he replies. Ã¢â¬ËWhere is your till? Ã¢â¬â¢ she asks. Adam quickly climbs over the drawer and gets the till from the outdoor area. He places the till on the drawer and gets behind it again. Ã¢â¬ËWeÃ¢â¬â¢re the shop keepersÃ¢â¬â¢ he says pointing to Sara. Practitioner gets some money and plays the role of a customer. Ã¢â¬ËWhat are you selling in your shop? Ã¢â¬â¢ she asks. Ã¢â¬ËthisÃ¢â¬â¢ says Adam pointing to a rectangular magnet block. Ã¢â¬ËHow much is it? Ã¢â¬â¢ she asks counting some coins in her hands. Ã¢â¬Ë? 2Ã¢â¬â¢ says Adam, holding up two fingers. 1b) 1:15 pm: Creative/Paint area LS: 4 Adam watches Sara painting with the string. He asks practitioner for another sheet of paper. He takes the string and takes the string that was in the burgundy paint tray. He dips it in the yellow paint and holds it with both hands at the ends and makes straight line prints on his paper. 1c) 1:30 pm: Focus activity-adult led. LS: 3 Practitioner calls Adam and two other children for a literacy session. They go to the quiet room next door. She holds up a picture card and tells them to say what they see and sound out the letters that make the word and write it on their paper. Adam is able to correctly write the names of some of the objects. After the writing activity, the children had to group the cards according to the first letters. Each child was given a stack of cards and they had to place them correctly in each alphabet group. Adam was able to sort some of the cards in the correct group. When he heard John say Ã¢â¬ËFinishÃ¢â¬â¢, he threw his cards down and ran for the door. 1d) 2:00 pm: Home corner/role-play LS: 5 Adam returns to the home corner with Sara. He takes play dough and two rolling pins. Ã¢â¬ËLet make biscuitsÃ¢â¬â¢ he tells Sara as he gives her a rolling pin. Ã¢â¬ËHe rolls out the play dough and goes to the resource cupboard and gets animal cutters. He cuts the rolled play dough and places them in the oven tray that I placed next to his table. He holds the oven tray, and tells Ã¢â¬ËSara to go and put the biscuits in the ovenÃ¢â¬â¢. Observation on Day 1: Sara 1e) 1:15 pm: Creative/Paint area LS: 4 Sara leads Adam to the creative area. Ã¢â¬Ëlets go and paintÃ¢â¬â¢ she tells him. She gets an apron and sits opposite John. She watches him paint using string and follows his hand with her eyes as he continues making patterns. She then picks up another string and dips it in the red paint and making similar patterns on her paper. Observation on Day 1: John 1f) 1:10 pm: Creative/Paint area LS: 5 John dips the paint brush in the blue paint. Mixes the paint, and then pours some red paint into the blue and continues mixing. He then gets up and goes towards the resource drawers. He pulls open the Ã¢â¬ËpaintÃ¢â¬â¢ drawer. Looks inside, and then closes it again. He moves up and opens the animal drawer. Picks out an elephant, and then puts it back again. He then opens the beading drawer. He picks out two strings; one yellow and the other red. He goes back to the paint table and sits down on the chair. Pulls the chair closer to the table and puts the strings down next to the paint trays. He looks at Sarah, then at Adam. He then picks up the yellow string and dips it into the burgundy (paint he mixed earlier). He slowly pulls out the string, holding it at one end, and takes it over to the blank white sheet of paper next to him and moves the string in circular motion, forming a pattern. He dips the string again, holding onto one end and brings it back to his picture and continues making circular patterns. 1g) 1:30 pm: Focus activity-adult led. LS:2 John attempts to make marks and is able to correctly write the first letter of the objects. After 3 pictures he starts looking towards the door. Practitioner notices that he was not focusing on the activity so she directs a question at him. Ã¢â¬ËJohn what is this? Ã¢â¬â¢ she asks holding the picture card. Ã¢â¬ËCarÃ¢â¬â¢ he says. Ã¢â¬ËThatÃ¢â¬â¢s absolutely right, now will you write car on your paper? Ã¢â¬â¢ she asks. He correctly forms the Ã¢â¬ËcÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËaÃ¢â¬â¢. After the writing activity, the children had to group the cards according to the first lettersÃ¢â¬ ¦ John started placing his cards randomly in each group. He placed the Ã¢â¬ËduckÃ¢â¬â¢ in the Ã¢â¬ËaÃ¢â¬â¢ group, Ã¢â¬ËpigÃ¢â¬â¢ in the Ã¢â¬ËbÃ¢â¬â¢ group etc. Ã¢â¬ËI am finishedÃ¢â¬â¢ he said when he distributed the cards. It seemed as if he was rushing to get over the activity so that he could go back to the hall. 1h) 2:00 pmLS: 4 John plays with the animals that I had set up in the mini world. He holds up a cow and makes Ã¢â¬ËmooÃ¢â¬ ¦mooÃ¢â¬â¢ sounds as he moves it back and forth. He rearranges the blocks separating the animals. He places the sheep on the grassy area and the horses next to them divided by wooden blocks. He moves the pigs next to cow and makes the cow eat it, licking his lips and smiling as he does that. When a practitioner comes up and sits down next to him, he walks away. 1i) 2:30 pm- Snack time Practitioner starts to sing aloud: Everyone do this, everyone do this, just like meÃ¢â¬ ¦. John stops and copies the practitioner placing his hands where she instructs. She then leads the children to the bathroom to wash their hands. John follows. He returns back to the hall and sits around the snack table, waiting for his plate. Appendix 2: Graph showing the engagement of children in adult directed/focused activities: Involvement Measured using Leaven Scale (Leavers, 1994) Appendix 3 Plan for focused/adult led activities that I conducted on Day 2 & 3 based on my observations on the first day. Adam, Sara and two other children sharing their interests: Day 2: Visit to the local toy shop, with clip boards, pen and paper. They were instructed to write a list of 10 items they would like to sell in their own toy shop. EYFS (DCSF, 2008) learning goals intended to achieve: Ã¢â¬ËAttempt writing for different purposes, using features of different forms such as lists, stories and instructionsÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËUse a pencil and hold it effectively to form recognisable letters, most of which are correctly formedÃ¢â¬â¢ (CLL) Ã¢â¬ËCount reliably up to ten everyday objectsÃ¢â¬â¢ (PRSN) Ã¢â¬ËFind out about, and identify, some features of living things, objects and events they observeÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËHandle tools, objects, construction and malleable materials safely and with increasing controlÃ¢â¬â¢ (KUW) Day 3: A biscuit baking activity. EYFS learning goals achieved: PRSN, KUW, CLL, PSE, PD and CD John and two other children sharing his interest: Day 2: Large animal jigsaw Once complete, they were asked to write the names of the animals that were in the puzzle. They were then asked to write how many of each animal they could see. EYFS learning goals intended to achieve: PSE, PD, CLL, KUW and PRSN Day 3: Animal sound recognition Game that involved playing an animal sounds CD and guessing which animal it was for each sound. EYFS learning goals intended to achieve: KUW, CLL and PSE Key for symbols used: CLL: Communication, language and literacy, KUW: Knowledge and understanding of the world, PRSN: Problem solving, reasoning and numeracy, PD: Physical development, PSE: Personal, social and emotional development, CD: Creative development Appendix 4: Feedback from colleague: Ã¢â¬ËThe painting activity was so wonderful. I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t believe Cameron actually got involved. I have been trying to get him to paint and make marks but heÃ¢â¬â¢s always refusing. Ã¢â¬â¢ Appendix 5: Carpet time: I asked children which activity they enjoyed the most at the end of each session. Their responses were: Day 1-Adam: Ã¢â¬Ëplaying with Sarah and making my shopÃ¢â¬â¢. Sara: Ã¢â¬ËpaintingÃ¢â¬â¢. John: Ã¢â¬ËpaintingÃ¢â¬â¢ Day 2-Adam: Ã¢â¬ËGoing to the toy shopÃ¢â¬â¢. Sara: Ã¢â¬Ëwriting my shopping listÃ¢â¬â¢. John: Ã¢â¬Ëgoldilocks storyÃ¢â¬â¢ Day 3-Adam: Ã¢â¬Ëmaking biscuitsÃ¢â¬â¢. Sara: Ã¢â¬Ëcooking biscuitsÃ¢â¬â¢. John: Ã¢â¬Ëthe animal gameÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â [pic] View as multi-pages TOPICS IN THIS DOCUMENT Active learning, Childhood, Plays RELATED DOCUMENTS Theories of Play, Development and Learning Ã¢â¬ ¦ Theories of Play, Development and Learning Child development was previously largely ignored, and there was little attention to the progress which occurs during childhood and adolescence in terms of cognitive abilities, physical growth and language usage. However, researchers have found interest to study typical development in children as well as what influences development. 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They also learn to express themselves and form relationships with othersÃ¢â¬ ¦. 4114 Words | 3 Pages READ FULL DOCUMENT Promoting childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s development Ã¢â¬ ¦ and interest if you hold your face close to theirs -loves skin-to-skin contact and tickles -Cry to make needs known -Laughing -Will smile at a face. -Begin to understand they exist separate to their carer. 3 Months -Watches hands and plays with fingers -Clasps and unclasps hands -Can hold a rattle for a moment -Lifts head and chest up -Waves arms and brings hands together over body -Recognises familiar routines such as bath time -Enjoys playing in water -Ã¢â¬ ¦ 4114 Words | 7 Pages READ FULL DOCUMENT Meeting additional requirements for childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s care and learning development. Ã¢â¬ ¦ Meeting additional requirements for childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s care and learning development. P1 Additional needs is a person with a physical, communication, sensory, behavioural or learning disability, or long-term/life-limiting condition. This can also include those with emotional health and wellbeing needs which puts an impact on their daily life including the even more significant mental health problems. Downs syndrome: Downs syndrome is aÃ¢â¬ ¦ 4114 Words | 4 Pages READ FULL DOCUMENT ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Care, Learning and Development Ã¢â¬ ¦ Outcome 1 Understand the importance of creative development Assessment Criteria The learner can: 1. 1 Describe why creative development is important to childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s learning Creative development is important to a childÃ¢â¬â¢s learning because it helps them to use their mind and imagination and express their own ideas, and through playing with their friends it also helps them to understand that allÃ¢â¬ ¦ 4114 Words | 3 Pages READ FULL DOCUMENT Promoting Development and Learning Ã¢â¬ ¦ Promoting development and learning in early childhood is extremely important. Ã¢â¬Å"Learning starts in infancy, long before formal education, and continues throughout life. Ã¢â¬ All parts of the environment and everything or everyone a child comes in contact with will have an impact on their cognitive, emotional, and social development. In our early childhood programs, they use Developmentally Appropriate Practice to determineÃ¢â¬ ¦ 4114 Words | 1 Pages READ FULL DOCUMENT Why Is Play with Siblings and Peers Important for ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Development? Ã¢â¬ ¦ Why is play with siblings and peers important for childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s development? For some time play has been considered a vital activity for children in enabling them to develop and practice real social skills in a safe setting. Whilst interactions with adults can be very important it is often, due to the nature of the relationship, when children interact with peers and siblings that the potential for development throughÃ¢â¬ ¦ 4114 Words | 6 Pages READ FULL DOCUMENT Why Is Play with Siblings and Peers Important for ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Development? Ã¢â¬ ¦ Why is play with siblings and peers important for childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s development? To provide my answer I will consider the nature and features of sibling and peer interactions and discuss the developmental significance of these relationships. I will draw upon research to support my rationale and explore the limitations of these accounts. I intend to conclude that childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s play is more than Ã¢â¬ËA physical or mental leisureÃ¢â¬ ¦ 4114 Words | 7 Pages READ FULL DOCUMENT CITE THIS DOCUMENT APA (2012, 05). Promoting ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Play, Learning and Development.