Saturday, August 31, 2019

Abandoned – Creative Writing

Private Michael Thompson was at the front, holding his assault rifle which he had trained with so much, hoping it would help him against what they were fighting. They were called in for riot control, but they soon realised it was no ordinary riot. These guys took twenty bullets, and kept coming. Other soldiers who were attacked were joining them. The only option left was to hold them in the town, until a tactical nuclear strike could be prepared. The barricades were in front of him and he looked around nervously, memorizing the faces of the other forty soldiers around him, They were nervous as well. All of them. They had just escorted one survivor to an evacuation vehicle. He was the only survivor that had heeded their calls. He was screaming, â€Å"They're coming! They're coming!-Just blow the city up. You can't stop them!† That hadn't helped anyone's nerves. They had been given orders to shoot to kill on any target they deemed hazardous. He could hear the wind blowing, and some birds singing behind him. Worst of all, he could hear the riot, the shuffling of thousands of feet, the screams that sounded inhuman-More like groans. Suddenly there was silence. All the soldiers tensed. They readied their rifles as one. They had a man set up with tear gas to break the crowd. Everyone raised their rifles. Their commanding officer, began barking out orders. He heard, and moved to his assigned spot. The shuffling started again, quicker than before, and they all knew the riot was headed towards them. They waited, listening. The crowd appeared about a third of a mile down the road. The Sergeant immediately ordered the rifle man to open fire. They argued about opening fire on civilians, but not for long. They started firing into the crowd. The ones they hit didn't go down. They just kept coming, just as reported in the briefing. The sergeant started yelling,†Hit them in the head, you morons, the head!† The sharpshooters adjusted their aims, and started dropping people in the crowd. They never screamed, they didn't even flinch. They just kept shuffling towards the barricade, silently. Everyone was a little afraid when the things came within easy firing range. They opened up in small bursts, bringing down many of the people. There were so many of them. The things were beating on the steel barricade, and reaching through the slots. Michael just kept shooting like he was ordered to. One to the left, one to the right, he didn't realise he was crying with fear, until the sergeant pulled him away as the barricade toppled. They began running. The sergeant was screaming for everyone to form around him, but no-one listened. They were smart, they kept running. Twenty men had died at the barricade, and no-one else wanted to join them. Michael followed the Sergeant through a couple of alleyways, and out into an empty street. The sergeant pulled out his portable radio, and started radioing for backup, heavy backup. The only response he got was the one that sealed their fate,†Red Wings, you're on your own on this mission.† Michael looked around at the grotesque caricatures of humanity closing in from both sides of the street, and he began running too. The Sergeant screamed his last scream as he was pulled down and Michael came close, but he broke away from the gruesome crowd, running like he never knew he could. He ran, they were still right behind him, not the same ones, different ones. There were so many of them. He ducked down an alley to run to the next street, but it was a dead end. Nowhere else to run! He hid in a bin and it was only a minute before he heard them surrounding it. They pounded on it with such ferocity he feared they'd break in, but they didn't. He sat in the bin and cried, knowing he'd never leave this place. Sally, his wife would never even learn he was dead. The things had breached the borders of the city and were spilling out in every direction now. He thought back to that civilian. He understood now and he hoped to god they would nuke the town and surrounding areas. The lives sacrificed would be small compared to how many would be lost if they didn't The bin was sliding, but he knew they'd never flip it. He had plenty of bullets left, so he sighed his last sigh, climbed on top of the dumpster and began firing on them, tears clouding his vision. He mowed down more than any other soldier had and when his ammunition ran out in his assault rifle, he drew his pistol. He fired 13 shots with it, killing twelve zombies. It was the end for him and he knew it. He stood still in the street, thinking about sally and how he would never see her again. He did not scream in pain as the grotesque things attacked him, he was a true solider to his last breath.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Apple International Marketing Essay

1. If you would be working for Apple (Ipad or Iphone) what strategies would you pursue in order avoid situation like what is happening today to Nokia Apple Inc. has already had a spectacular break-through in the technological race when it firstly released Iphone in 2007. Since when, there was a revolution in the technology field especially, in the Personal Computer (PC) industry involves: smartphone and tablet computer. If I worked for Apple Inc., in order to retain as well as to enhance the position of Apple in Today’s market, I would apply, deploy and develop the Relationship marketing with â€Å"Differentiation† strategies based on 4P includes: Product-Price-Promotion-Place. Product Firstly, people have to admit the truth that the present success of Apple was built on the brilliant products. Compared to Nokia, Apple already created a key competitive advantage that raises company to a new level. The failure of Nokia was a cost lesson for others mobile phone manufacturer in the world. The main reasons leading Nokia to this moment situation is company already missed a valuable opportunity in smartphone revolution as well as its products. Even though, later on Nokia unveiled smartphone Lumia but it did not satisfy the consumers’ demand and expectation. Nokia product’s designs are not attractive and fashionable as Iphone. In addition, the products are outdated interface, lack of applications and outdated technologies compared to Apple’s products. Consequently, Nokia loose its leading brand value in the mobile phone industry. Meanwhile, Apple realized and took that opportunity then turned it into huge success. Hence, Apple should continue the product differentiation strategy. It mainly focuses on investing more in creating and developing the new and innovative technologies, which are totally different from competitors’. The products should be usually updated and upgraded in both its particular outlook (thinnest, most lightweight, unique, fashionable and outstanding) and functions (convenient, ease-use, support applications and service etc.). This is the only way to make company continue keep its crown as innovator in the intensive technological competition. Price Secondly, despite the Apple is assessed as â€Å"the tech industry’s high-price leader† with Premium price, people are still willing to purchase its products at a particular price. The main point is price set based on the â€Å"product Differentiation strategies†. Therefore, in order to exist and grow in the price war, the company not only retain the same price strategy but also use more the pricing Skimming and Reference strategies: launching a same product line but in different price points depending on the features and drive capacities. It may be better for Apple than using the penetration pricing strategies by suddenly decreasing the price to expand or approach new market. Promotion In order to get the large impact from media and society, one key in the Apple’s marketing is its traditional promotion strategies by creating hype and excitement before the launch of products. Apple is considered as â€Å"Phenomenon† and each marketing communication relating to â€Å"Word of mouth† created huge impact on consumer behavior. Organizing significant campaigns with special slogan to introduce and get emotional response about the new products, which concentrate on the consumer psychology: the curiousness, self-esteem, desire and passion in new technologies Place Finally, expanding and opening new multi-distribution channels with high sales volume (retail store chain and online sales). Simultaneously, more creating the strong relationship with worldwide retail partners. In conclusion, Relationship Marketing based on â€Å"Differentiation strategies† focusing on customer retention and satisfaction, which in order to enhance, increase customer loyalty and sustainable development. Apple Inc. has to understand the market dynamic to keep its track as market driven by inventing the unique and creative product lines as well as innovation technology. 2. On the other hand, if you would be working for a competitor of Apple (Tablet or mobile), what strategies would you adopt in order to compete against Apple Apple (Iphone and Ipad) is considered as the biggest rival in the PC industry of Samsung (Galaxy S), Nokia (Lumia), Google (Nexus), Amazon (Kindle Fire). Even though, Apple has been dominating the PC industry but its target market selection is â€Å"Market specialization†. The weakness of Apple is the limited market share because of the premium price and most Apple content can only run on its selected devices. If we are competitors of Apple, we can use the Apple’s strategies to compete against it. It means we should also apply the â€Å"Differentiation strategies† to provide more perceived value to consumer. Every time, Apple releases new product or any application, we might prepare to create and unveil our amazing different products with adding more value proposition. Take for instances, to accompany with product, we can offer new innovative or free (or low cost charge) applications, software, movies, TV shows, games, e-books, cloudy computing or even more drive capacity etc. Although, we do not have as strong customer loyalty as Apple has, our competitive advantage is offering the same product’s quality with a competitive price which is less than Apple’s but still not too low to confirm our position in the market. In addition, as some Apples’s competitors (eg: Kindle of Amazon) did, they used the bundle pricing strategies combine two or more products and sell these at a reduced price or offer programs: buy once but easy to access content on other devices ipad, iphone, tablets . Then little by little getting the expansion international scale with â€Å"Full market coverage† (different product lines suitable for every customers) through different market entries, distribution channels and marketing communication campaigns. 3. Make a SWOT analysis for Apple (Ipad and Iphone) Apple’s SWOT analysis a. Define what are the biggest threats and opportunities for Apple in the future Threats Nowadays, the high technology industry seems to be in the â€Å"Saturation† but in the future, people still believe there would be remarkable changes. In the future, the most threats that Apple may face is the intensive and high level in technology competition. The threats might be coming from both existing and emerging competitors. The growing in the market share leads to the consequence that there growth in perception and needs/demands of customers. In addition, there are more and more counterfeit and fake products overflowing market that affect directly to the company image and sales. If Apple cannot find the solution, soon company is surpassed by others competitors. Opportunities: Ranking as a top leading innovator brings many open-opportunities for Apple. The biggest opportunity of Apple is changes in technology offer new and innovative products. The company can even get and deploy from the outsourcing for its research and development. Creating the technology revolution and changing desire of information age affecting to most generations. As one of the most famous philosophies of strategic marketing pioneer – Regis McKenna: â€Å"Markets for new innovative products do not exist, they have to be created, and defined†. Therefore, creating and expanding the product/service lines by Apple could help them define its market, raise sales and increase their product portfolio. b. Define what are the biggest strengths and weaknesses of Apple today Strengths In 2012, this is the second time when Apple is ranked the world’s most valuable brand according to â€Å"The 2012 BrandZ Top 100 Most Valuable Global Brands†. It is said that the Apple’s brand success is driven by three elements confidence, competence and customers. Might be the reason why people purchase Apple’s product because they just care about its brand and image. As the David Haigh stated in the annual report on the world’s most valuable global brands: â€Å"Brands are the most valuable assets in business today. They drive demand, motivate staff, secure business partners and reassure financial markets. Leading edge organizations recognize the need to understand brand equity and brand value when making strategic decisions† – David Haigh, CEO, Brand Finance plc. Apple is successful in creating its identity and emotional branding that all most the whole world can recognize. Long term brand building will engage consumers on a variety of touch points that create the high loyalty. Weaknesses Entering the Niche market with the premium price strategies, which can considered as Apple’s weakness. The price wars between competitors will also affect to Apple’s profits. Moreover, the company’s target market selection is â€Å"Market specialization† then it quite limits the market share cause products provided by Apple meet the demand of middle/ upper class and people are interested in innovation technology. Reference Mr. Francois Simon’s lecture and materials{92b52c53-fc68-45e0-aaea-34fe6fbd769b}

How the Internet Has Changed Life Essay

Our lives have changed beyond recognition since the Internet was launched in the year 1989. In a short space of 18 years people are already beginning to wonder how they would ever have coped without it. We use the it to send e-mail, pay out utility bills, reserve tickets for flights or theatre, update our bank accounts, apply for loans and mortgages, purchase stock market shares, browse and purchase items from Internet stores, and of course to check up on every kind of day to day information, e. g. news, weather and financial market indexes. Previously all these tasks entailed time-consuming and laborious physical procedures. see more:short paragraph on internet For example, finding time on a weekday to visit the bank was irksome and clashed with our 9-5 routine. We used the ‘snail-mail’ for our post, and queued up hours to get tickets to theatres or sports events. We couldn’t even think of getting a bank loan, or a mortgage, without a stern appointment with our bank manager, and most of our shopping was necessarily a chore. Many are opting to ‘telecommute’ as well, which means that they work from home with the PC connected to the office intranet, so they are able to avoid the horror of commuting to and from work daily. The Internet is now the primary means to secure a job. Students secure admissions to college and university online. After having got in they continue to depend on the Internet to collect course notes and other study materials, and even submit completed papers to their instructors. This is not to mention that the Internet is the greatest possible source of scholarly information. Not only is the university library at the student’s fingertips, but the Internet itself is the most comprehensive library imaginable. Even romance is not exempt from the digital domain. Through online dating agencies many people meet their future life partners and spouses on the Net. Not only work, the Internet has also become our station for play. ‘Browsing the Net’ has become our favorite pastime, and indeed an addiction for many. We frequent websites based on our favorite sports personalities and movie stars. ‘Web chatting’ is also a hugely popular pastime on the Internet, where live conversations and discussions are carried out on specially designed thematic forums. With the advent of ‘file sharing’ we are swapping and sharing music and videos over the Net based on fan clubs and interest groups. By a recent estimate (Lipsman 2008) 694 million people worldwide use the Internet on a regular basis. This is a measure of how far it has infiltrated and changed our lives. Paradoxically, the Internet was devised by the military and was originally meant for the most secretive information. It is now the very by-word for openness. Of course, as with every technology, there are attendant evils. Along with authentic and reliable information, there is a flood of vindictive and motivated propaganda. Just as scholars are able to meet on the net to advance knowledge, so do terrorists come together with their evil designs. Healthy entertainment is overwhelmed by the perverse form of it. In a recent study (Flichy 2007) it has been estimated that a quarter of all the websites are pornographic. The revered institution of copyright is being ravaged more and more everyday, where copyrighted material is being made freely available by unscrupulous parties, to the detriment of artists and inventors everywhere. The music industry is losing everyday its battle against the Internet piracy of music. Hackers also pose another looming menace. Not everything fed into the Internet is meant to be available to everyone. Much of it is personal or corporate information that is for restricted use. Hackers try to break into databases containing such information, purely for disruptive purposes. All the problems mentioned above derive from the characteristically open nature of the Internet. When it is abused it is open to evil, even to the same extent that it is a cause for good. In this last respect the Internet is affecting the most fundamental change to our society. It is the incursions into privacy, private property and decency that pose the gravest dangers, and therefore threatens to change our society in fundamental ways. All these dangers were apparent in the very early days of the Internet. Writing in the Encarta Yearbook of 1996 Gary Chapman says: This revolutionary information network ignores geographic and governmental barriers, undermines obscenity and pornography laws and restrictions, has the potential to invade individual privacy in numerous ways, and threatens to divide society between the information haves and have-nots. The government was quick to react to such alarm. In the same year Congress passed the CDA (Communications Decency Act) with the aim of cleansing the Internet of all forms of pornography. But is quickly became apparent to all parties that such a law was non-enforceable. As in all obscenity trials throughout the history of the country, the borders of obscenity could never be agreed upon. Any effort in this direction soon found itself in direct opposition to the First Amendment of the Constitution, that which protects free speech and opinion. Consequently, the following year the Supreme Court annulled the Congressional ruling as unconstitutional, and Justice John Paul Stevens (1997), in his summary of the Court’s opinion, identified the problem starkly: Notwithstanding the legitimacy and importance of the Congressional goal of protecting children from harmful materials, we agree with the three-judge District Court that the statute abridges â€Å"the freedom of speech† protected by the First Amendment. The Internet being the embodiment of free speech, it proved impossible to curtail it in any way. In more recent times Professor Lawrence Lessig of the University of Chicago has pointed to a deeper link between the Internet and the American psyche. Freedom of speech, he avers, is the fundamental tenet of American culture, and any encroachment on this principle threatens the nation as a whole. He opposes the new laws passed by Congress more recently that are aimed at stemming piracy: â€Å"What the law demands today is increasingly silly as a sheriff arresting an airplane for trespass. But the consequences of this silliness will be much more profound† (Lessig, 2004, p. 12). Lessig’s argument is that censorship has never been effectively carried out on American soil, and it is exactly this which has imbued character to the nation and has made it great. All the greatest accomplishment in art and science were result of free speech, he maintains. In his book Free Culture: How Big Media Uses Technology and the Law to Lock Down Culture he goes on to show how Walt Disney was in effect the master pirate. He burst into the limelight in the year 1928 with the short animation â€Å"Steamboat Bill†, featuring the character of Mickey Mouse is a previous personification as Willie. Not only did this steal the name from Buster Keaton’s 1928 classic Steamboat Bill Jr but the plot and humor it as well. Lessig builds on this document by showing that each and every one of Disney’s sumptuous productions were concocted from material of various talent, none of whom are acknowledged. The special stamp of Disney came from the process of the mix, and even more so from the process of burn, by which his creation enters culture and becomes an integral part of the American psyche. â€Å"Rip, mix and burn,† he says is the formula behind America’s entrepreneurial success. It personified the American way to creativity, which must necessarily flourish in an environment of free speech: These values built a tradition that, for at least the first 180 years of our Republic, guaranteed creators the right to build freely upon their past, and protected creators and innovators from either state or private control. †¦ Our tradition was neither Soviet nor the tradition of patrons. It instead carved out a wide berth within which creators could cultivate and extend our culture. (Ibid, p. 10) Any form of censorship is to create a nobility of information, where only the privileged have access, and this is fundamentally un-American. â€Å"But it is nobility of any form that is alien to our culture† (Ibid, p. 11). Lessig avers hope for the Internet, even though he is unable to offer concrete examples of creativity emerging from the tumultuous mix that is the Internet. He reasons from history, tradition and the American ideal. At the heart of this ideal is â€Å"free speech†, and the Internet is the ultimate embodiment of it. It the experience of many that the Internet is a force for good, despite the endless avenues for corruption that it leaves open. The general verdict is that the good outweighs the evil, which is in line with the optimism expressed by Lessig. References Chapman, G. (1996). â€Å"The Internet: Promise and Peril in Cyberspace. † Encarta Yearbook, May 1996. New York: Microsoft Corporation. Flichy, P. (2007). The Internet Imaginaire. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Lessig, L. (2004). Free Culture: How Big Media Uses Technology and the Law to Lock Down Culture. New York: Penguin Publishers.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Relationship between christmas and religion Essay

Relationship between christmas and religion - Essay Example which were not directly related to Christianity, but were inspired from the former popular religion Pagan are Christmas tree, decoration on it and around it, gathering around it, stuffing stockings with goodies and hanging them on the top of fireplaces. Nevertheless, in the past exchange of presents and opening them on the day of Christmas was also not a part of Christmas tradition, but was supposed to be linked with New Year celebrations. In the contemporary world this occasion is not only associated to Christian faith only, but non-believers also celebrate it due to its global popularity, adaptability by the Western society, business and media publicity and promotion and eventually its acceptability by all faith holders. Now Christmas is a time of national holidays, time to bond with families, eat turkey, shop endlessly and exchange of gifts. It’s a time for which business entrepreneurs plan carefully and media gives full coverage to it worldwide. It gives a chance to job-tied people to relax and mingle with family and friends. Hence, Christmas holidays are celebrated around the globe with or without relating it to the Christian

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Critical Theory of International Relations and Neorealism Essay

Critical Theory of International Relations and Neorealism - Essay Example Neorealism show the triumph of social control and structure in defining international relations. The international structure provides a constraint on state actions and although essentially the international structure is decentralised and anarchic, states strive for survival, security and balance of power (Dougherty 2001). Neorealism thus emphasises structural constraints over social perceptions and collective motivations and is more constrained in its explanations of IR. On the other hand, critical theories of international relations would focus on a critical study of IR which would emphasise on origin, development and nature of historical structures of IR. Critical theories of international relations are oriented to critiquing and changing society considering wide perspectives derived from Kantian and Marxian traditions which aim to consider historical and social perspectives within a theory. According to Marxist theories, capital accumulation and explanation of international systems on the basis of such integrated capiatlist approaches is at the focus of socialist concerns. Marxist theories see colonialism as a method of capital accummulation as captive markets show new forms of dependence on more developed countries. Marxist theories suggest that developed countries penetrate developing countries with missionaries, military power, multinational companies and political advisors to integrate these economies into a larger capitalist system. Within the context of developing societies being exploited considering their markets, natural resoruces and raw materials, Marxist theories also use the concept of social class with individuals comprising of the higher class of society being exploitative of the lower class using the sole aim of capital accumulation (Linklater 1990, Burchill 1996). Another critical theory would be social constructivism which gives an epistemological dimension to postpositivist theories and lies in between positivist and postpositivist perspectives. Social constructivism focuses not on the economic aspects, unlike Marxism but on the theory of social ideas or perception showing that international structure constitutes identities and interests of state. The focus of social constructivism is on the state and actions of the state and as constructvism suggests that views and ideas are constructed, social constructivism deals with human experience and social perception. Social constructivism is of the contention that all knowledge of reality including race and gender are actively created by social relationships and interactions and that all meaning are derived from social structures (Brown, 2001, Taylor 1978). The emphasis is thus on society, social meaning and social activity giving meaning to social interactions and reality. Critical constructivism would argue that all proof or fact as seen in empirical research as in natural sciences could be considered as a social or

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Personal Statement - Why Do You Want To Study Business Adminstration

- Why Do You Want To Study Business Adminstration and why carnegie mellon - Personal Statement Example As a child, I used to tell my father that I could wish to own a large business organization when I grew up, but he thought I was joking. My Interest in business and the desire to live a high-class life, and be independent was discovered when I helped my father in his business shop during holidays. I used to market his products through Facebook, twitter and other social networks, which I found hard to convince my father to join. As I was working with my father in his business, I realized I could not directly face people because I was shy. Moreover, to further my skills and knowledge in business, I worked in several business entities as an internee. During this time, I learnt many business related skills like marketing, balancing the cashbooks, attending leadership trainings and workshops. All these skills and knowledge plus excelling well in my class work business related courses increased my interest in the need to do business administration. In the current world everything has changed due to advanced technology; this has also increased my interests in pursuing a business course. This is because, as a business administrator; I can sell my products through the social networks, process clients requests and even prepare data without necessarily going to the office, shop or meeting clients face- to – face. Carnegie Mellon University is my number one preferred university because of the quality and professional studies it offers especially in the school of Business studies. In addition, another reason is that most people owning high technology companies studied in Carnegie Mellon University. It also offers entrepreneurship inspirational business courses, which make interested students, come out successful once completing their studies from the university. In addition, as a student who wants to pursue in Business Administration, I believe Carnegie Mellon University is the perfect place for me. Professionally, Carnegie Mellon University in general

Monday, August 26, 2019

Impact of the Communism Collapse on Countries` Economic Systems Essay

Impact of the Communism Collapse on Countries` Economic Systems - Essay Example Economic factors were linked to political and psychological factors. 1 Aerospace Power Journal - spring 2001.pp 100-113 As the Soviet economist Latsis said at the time, "the gloomy background of the worsening market situation ... has a depressing effect on people." Now that the Soviet Union, with its centralized political and economic system, has ceased to exist, the fifteen newly formed independent countries which emerged in its aftermath are faced with an overwhelming task. They must develop their economies, reorganize their political systems, and, in many cases, settle bitter territorial disputes. A number of wars have developed on the peripheries of the former Soviet Union. Additionally, the entire region is suffering a period of severe economic hardship. Democracy is a political model and communism is an economic one. By the beginning of the 21st cent. traditional Communist party dictatorships held power only in China, Cuba, Laos, North Korea, and Vietnam. China, Laos, Vietnam, and, to a lesser degree, Cuba have reduced state control of the economy in order to stimulate growth. Although economic reform has been allowed in these countries, their Communist parties have proved unwilling to submit to popular democratic movements. The policies of most Communist Parties in both Eastern and Western Europe had been governed by the example of the Soviet Union. Communist economic system is associated with an authoritarian government system, which means that a government elite enhances its economic, judicial and political freedoms and suppresses those who are led by them. There is no theoretical reason for communism to be associated with... This essay aims to establish all gamut of impacts of the communistic ideology on the economic systems of democratic countries. In theory communism should create a classless society and freedom, in which all people would enjoy equal economic status. That may be a theory of what communism should be like but in practice the government cared little for the working class citizens and only wanted to preserve their own power. The immediate cause of the Soviet collapse was economic, as the Soviet Union lost the arms race and international competition with the West. The US was able to profit from its imperialist exploitation of other countries, while socialism could only lose economically in that competition. Economic factors were linked to political and psychological factors. Nowadays traditional Communist party dictatorships held power only in China, Cuba, Laos, North Korea, and Vietnam. China, Laos, Vietnam, and, to a lesser degree, Cuba have reduced state control of the economy in order to stimulate growth. Although economic reform has been allowed in these countries, their Communist parties have proved unwilling to submit to popular democratic movements. With the Cold War over, politicians, economists and others promoted unfettered free trade and free market ideology. Various factors such as political decisions, military might, wars, imperial processes and social changes throughout last few decades and centuries have pulled the world system in various directions. Today's world is based on 'Global Politics and Economics.'

Sunday, August 25, 2019

State Of Integrated Health Delivery System Case Study

State Of Integrated Health Delivery System - Case Study Example The houses of HMA must, therefore, be put in place and in order before any external solutions can be solved. There is also a problem of personal acquaintance to administrative task delivery. By this, reference is being made to what is seemingly an absence of committed understanding of the core needs and strategic focus of the facility by the human resource base of HMA. It will, therefore, be very necessary for there to be a human resource based change that identifies the needs of staff and readily solve them. The essence of this change is that is it only when the service provider who in this case are the staff are well motivated to deliver work and understand the reasons to display committed service that the service provider can receive such guaranteed excellence in service delivery (Wennberg, therefore, In effect, changes in the human resource capacity building of the organization will ensure that there is improved productivity, which could also ensure that there is improvement in f inancial situation of HMA. Impact of current financial crisis on physician groups in the delivery of health care From every indication, the financial strength of a healthcare organization like HMA can greatly affect the plans and focuses of the organization in instituting and implementing for a new strategy (Halvorson, 2007). Once this inhabitation of strategy happens, the delivery of excellent healthcare, in general, can become greatly limited. This is because in most cases, health organizations depend on the use of such strategic changes to bring about excellent service delivery to clients as has been exhibited by HMA which is currently seeking to put in place the integrated delivery system as a strategy. Having said this, there have been other studies and works of literature that have argued that financial crisis at organizations such as HMA does not outrightly mean a flaw in the quest to deliver quality healthcare (Shi and Singh, 2004).  

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Analyzation paper on the Novel the bluest eye by Toni Morrison Essay

Analyzation paper on the Novel the bluest eye by Toni Morrison - Essay Example At the beginning of the story she is ruled by two desires. The first one is to understand love and to know how makes people love her. And the second is considered not to observe parent’s quarrels that make her feels horrible. She has been interested in the feeling of love, and her life experience gives her an opportunity to face with the special and even strange manifestation of love. The matter is that Pecola has been raped by her father Cholly Breedlove. This man has problems with the alcohol that may be predetermined by his hard childhood. He loves his daughter and reflects this love in a brutal and violent form. The feelings, that he is experienced in the moment of raping Pecola, may be described as love and hatred. His character has been cruel and alcohol helps him to become mad. Still, that is considered to be the only form of love that Pecola knows in her life, and as it is suggested in the novel â€Å"wicked people love wickedly, violent people love violently, weak people love weakly, stupid people love stupidly, but the love of a free man is never save† (Morrison, 163). Her father’s freedom in love is considered to be dangerous and it reflects on a daughter. Pecola is represented as fragile and delicate child through the entire story. Her life is suffering with no positive implications in reality. She is in need to endure the boys who tortured her after school, the classmates who ridicule her, or Mr. Yacobowski who rejects to touch her hand. Pecola is a true victim of the entire society in general and of her own views in particular. The matter is that this girl is considered to be sure in her ugliness and uselessness in this world. Her black skin is interpreted by her as a huge drawback in her life and in all the society. Black means ugly for Pecola and nothing can change her vision. Her dream is represented as a desire to have blue eyes and white skin. Pecola has an imaginary illusion

Friday, August 23, 2019

CRJS405DB4 Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

CRJS405DB4 - Research Paper Example These include but not limited to collation, filtering, visualization and processing of data. Collation is the major role played by Excel. It involves gathering items that are related together into a solitary location, the spreadsheet. This aids in facilitating interpretation of data as only those records that are related are kept together. The organization of data in the spreadsheet also enhances clarity and neatness of the records, making access and retrieval easy and faster. Filtering is also another important feature offered by Excel. The data sets can also be easily visualized, making the work of the managers easy and more efficient to perform. SPSS can be defined as an integrated collection of tools for analysis of data commonly used and applied by social scientist researchers ( Mckeh & David, 2004). It is a computer based software package for quantitative data analysis commonly used for analysis of statistical data and other data management tasks. SPSS offers predictive analytics, a common feature which is beneficial to all businesses regardless of their industry. This feature involves predicting changes in the future trends in selling patterns. The results are then translated quickly into a number of harmonized decisions which aid in management and planning for future trends. This helps organization to take caution of possible risks of failure in the future, thus adjusting their operations to fit the situation ( Wagner, 2011). This saves money and improves customer satisfaction, thus ensuring continued success of the business. Future losses are prevented before occurring. When one uses the data garnered in a survey as a tool to develop a profile of features to be used by the company when hiring workers and call that Ideal, it could mean a stagger in the ethics of business. This is equated to having a mold of potential employees and calling them ideal (Cooper $ Vault, 2009). Each of them will be diversified in the

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Urban Education Movie Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Urban Education Movie Analysis - Essay Example As the report stresses the film shows discrimination of the Hispanic learners in a number of ways. The schools in Los Angeles degraded and portrayed inhuman treatment Hispanic learners by not allowing them to use bathroom facilities at lunch time, deprivation of standard academic services for non-white learners, lack of quality academic learning material absence of a bilingual program and a ban on speaking Spanish in school. The education systems treat the white students as they are from a superior race compared to the Hispanics. This kind of unequal treatment, when compared to white learners, made it unfair for the Hispanics to compete on level terms with their fellow students. From the essay it is clear that the students’ initiative to walk out is a brave and necessary move despite the risks involved. The social movement was inevitable as it raised the issue and triggered others to come out and express their dissatisfaction with â€Å"the system†. The students exhibit heroic traits by rising against the injustices. Failure to do so would have led to continuous non-recognition of their skills, ideas and talents. An ideal education system serves to promote academic excellence as well as contribute towards the realization of their talents. It also inspires students to express their ideas in a platform where there is equality. From the film, it is evident that the oppressed have the obligation to cause alarm so that their plight can be addressed.

A Gothic novel Essay Example for Free

A Gothic novel Essay How far can we accept Mary Shelleys Frankenstein as a typical example of the Gothic Tradition? Focus on specific examples of the genre to illustrate your answer. Many critics have named Mary Shelleys Frankenstein as a Gothic novel. A traditional Gothic novel can be described as, tales of the macabre, fantastic and supernatural. In the beginning, the word Gothic implied medieval, but with time its meaning altered, until its emphasis lay on the macabre. Many of the best gothic novels show examples of invention and produce moments of horror far greater than pieces that are less emotive. Frankenstein fits into this category. Victor Frankenstein is an ambitious, although misguided inventor, looking to solve the secret of life. In her introduction, Mary Shelley declares her desire to curdle the blood and quicken the beatings of the heart. This type of language immediately signals to the reader that Frankenstein should be placed in the gothic genre. Gothic novels are generally said to include some of the following elements. They should be set in a castle with an atmosphere of suspense and mystery, there should be supernatural or otherwise inexplicable events, am ancient prophecy, omens, portents, visions, high or overwrought emotion, women in distress or threatened by a powerful, impulsive, tyrannical male, and finally the metonymy of gloom and horror. Frankenstein does not really include any of these points to the excess. It is not set in a castle and the language cannot really be said to be mysterious, as we are narrated clearly throughout. Can it still be said to be a gothic novel, even without any of the conventional gothic traits? The term gothic covers a wide variety of texts and is by no means easy to define. It is not that straightforward to therefore relate Frankenstein to other gothic novels. However, some certain elements of Frankenstein can be determined as gothic, even though other parts may not fit the pattern.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Web Application Design for School Organisation Optimization

Web Application Design for School Organisation Optimization Application and Knowledge Design At first, the ontology will be planned in accordance with the methodology of ontology building. Description of the Ontology The ontology domain is based upon the running of a school. The goal of the research is to provide users of the applications with the prospects to get information regarding the requirement that is required in the running of a school. The school will incorporate classes, departments, subjects, all staff etc. Queries In order to get all the required information, a number of queries have to be performed throughout the web. Coupled with the required information, it can be stated that the following queries need to be performed. What is taught Monday morning in room CWG/03 at 9am? How many girls are in year 10 take Science? How old is the head teacher? What teacher is head of the sports department? Who teachers Geography and also Sports? Please give all the names of teachers and their email addresses if known. How many of the admin team are under 40 years of age? Admin Staff members whose surname begin with W Retrieve all teachers and their qualifications Retrieve the name of all subjects taught by the teacher with ID 2341 Why the Domain is Interesting to an Audience? The shift of the paradigms in the field of education in the recent decades, as well as the spreading of education, proposes ways through which the education can be provided under one roof. Practitioners and researchers are making every attempt to find approximate methodologies for making education easily available to every human being. With the proposed ontology, the user can have a concept of the school and will be able to develop the school system in any part of the world with an ease of the information technology. The respective domain ontology will act as an instrument for the construction of the school system in an effective and efficient manner. Consider Salvaging Existing Ontologies In order to make an application that fulfils the needed requirements, the following ontologies have been deployed. Tools for Managing Ontologies In the context of definitions and typologies, there are also several available tools for defining and managing ontologies. Since the initials and more rudimentary (Ontolingua Server, Ontosaurus) to the most recent and advanced, the following typology has been proposed. Ontology Development Tools This group includes the tools that serve for the construction of new ontologies or for the reuse of existing tools (Tolk, 2013). Among its functionalities are the addition and the consultation, as well as the export and import of ontologies, visualization in various graphic formats, etc. Ontology Fusion and Integration Tools These tools try to solve the problem of the combination and integration of diverse ontologies of the same domain; that occurs when two distinct organizations are united, or when it is intended to obtain a quality ontology, from the existing ones (Jain, 2013). Ontology Evaluation Tools They appear as tools for support should ensure that both ontologies and related technologies have a minimum level of quality (Ferraram, 2013). In the coming years, this effort can lead to identical certifications. Annotation Tools These tools are premeditated to consent users to insert information and data (Jain, 2013). Most of these tools have seemed recently, along with the idea of à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬ ¹ the semantic web. Tools, Storage and Questions They are termed as the instruments that have been created to allow easy use ontologies (Maedche, 2012). The key is the intent that the web becomes a real platform to transmit knowledge. Learning Tools They are semi-automatically used to build ontologies from natural language. Along with the tools or editors, ontologies must mention the existence of different languages à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬ ¹Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬ ¹that allow the creation and / or development thereof. Most are built by XML syntax or RDF (S) and OIL (Ontology Inference Layer), DAML (DARPA Agent Mark-up Language), OIL and OWL (The Web Ontology Language) (Shvaiko, 2013). In any case, some of these ontology languages à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬ ¹Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬ ¹are still in development, although thanks to the work and support of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) OWL seems that consolidates acquiring a clear and obvious progression. Significant Terms used within the School Ontology The significant terms that will be deployed throughout the research paper are mentioned below. Staff Students Teachers/Lecturers Admin staff Rooms Classrooms Staff room Timetable Description of the Classes and Hierarchy Classes The classes are explained in the below mentioned diagram. The Architecture of 3-Tier Content Management is illustrated in the below mentioned diagram. Description of the Classes and Hierarchy Classes Describing Classes Three primary classes will be defined i.e. Users, institutions, and learning resources. The institution class is further divided into colleges. The learning resource class incorporates a list of overall courses as its user class and subclasses consists of a list of every type of users i.e. Instructor, student, and administrator (Jain, 2013).   The overall classes are sub classed under one class that exemplifies overall classes root. Tools and Techniques Used in Prototype Development Owl and Protà ©gà © editor have been deployed to build domain ontologies for its popularity and simplicity. RDQL and Jena2 APIs have been deployed in order to interact with a semantic web reasoner to implement the designed prototype (Kholief, 2012). OWL has been used as the ontology language, reason being; it has been recommended due to its tool support, and functionality. SPARQL is the recommendation of the W3C recommendation as a query language within the framework of Jena for RDF. SPARQL has been deployed to extract the information from the graphs of RDF. This infers that the only information retrieved by the SPARQL is stored in a model that consists of a set of N-triple statements (Ferraram, 2013). Moreover, SPARQL can process the ontology in a wide range of languages, including SPARQL, OWL, similar to other languages of RDF based query ierSeRQL, RDQL, and SPARQL is tough to provide semantics with reference to DL, OWL. A typical SPARQL query possesses the below motioned forms SELECT ?x WHERE (?xshortPrefix : localName   value) USING short Prefix FOR ?x refers to the variables that will return to the applications. The WHERE clause stipulates the graph pattern in the form of the list of the triple patterns USING clause describes an alias for URIs prefix to simplify the URL   (Stevenson, 2015) SPARQL can query regarding the objects or predicates too. However, the limitation of SPARQL incorporates that there exists no query disjunction. The Repository tier stores both; the structure and content of the ontology. The Generic ontology researcher engine resides in the semantic tier amid the end user interface tier and repository tier (Icoza, 2015). The end-user interface tier cooperates with the content server via the reasoner by stipulating the criteria tier attribute-value pairs and the constraints. Then, the reasoner locates the pertinent contents (based upon those conditions), and deliver content to the software agents/ users within an arranged manner. Such a type of system decomposition allows those to develop large-scale software systems and reduces the overall time of development (Kholief, 2012). To illustrate the dependencies or relationships in the respective domain, 2 types of relationships have been used; the direct relationship amid content incorporating its inverse relationship. The other relationship is the transitive or indirect, tier prerequisite that refers to the inherited relationships. Sparql queries What is taught Monday morning in room CWG/03 at 9am? PREFIX rdf: PREFIX owl: PREFIX rdfs: PREFIX xsd: PREFIX sch: SELECT ?course ?weekday ?time ?room WHERE { ?course rdf:type sch:Course   . ?course sch:day ?weekday . ?course sch:time ?time . ?course sch:room ?room . FILTER regex(str(?weekday),Monday,i) FILTER regex(str(?time),9AM,i) } Science course is taught Monday at 9AM in room CWG/03. How many girls take science in year 10? PREFIX rdf: PREFIX owl: PREFIX rdfs: PREFIX xsd: PREFIX sch: SELECT (MAX(?course) as ?course_name)   (COUNT(?students) AS ?no_students) WHERE { ?course rdf:type sch:Course . FILTER regex(str(?course),Science_,i) . ?course sch:hascourse ?students . ?students a ?type   . FILTER( regex(STR(?type), Year10)) . ?students sch:gender ?gender . FILTER regex(str(?gender),F,i) . } The number of girls who take science in year 10 is 2. How old is the head teacher? PREFIX rdf: PREFIX owl: PREFIX rdfs: PREFIX xsd: PREFIX sch: SELECT ?task ?num WHERE { ?task rdf:type sch:Headteacher . OPTIONAL {?task sch:age ?num } } The headteacher is 45 years old. What teacher is head of the sports department? PREFIX rdf: PREFIX owl: PREFIX rdfs: PREFIX xsd: PREFIX sch: SELECT ?name WHERE { ?name rdf:type sch:Sports_head . } His name is Martin Richards Who teachers Geography and also Sports? PREFIX rdf: PREFIX owl: PREFIX rdfs: PREFIX xsd: PREFIX sch: SELECT ?teacher ?teaches WHERE { ?teacher rdf:type sch:Teachers . ?teacher sch:IsLecturerOf ?teaches . FILTER (regex(str(?teaches),Geography_,i) || regex(str(?teaches),Sports,i)) . } Bill Waite teaches both Geography and Sports. Please give all the names of teachers and their email addresses if known. (Optional patterns, week 6, lecture 5, slide 12) PREFIX rdf: PREFIX owl: PREFIX rdfs: PREFIX xsd: PREFIX sch: SELECT ?name ?email WHERE { ?name rdf:type sch:Teachers . OPTIONAL {?name sch:email ?email } . } How many of the admin team are under 40 years of age? PREFIX rdf: PREFIX owl: PREFIX rdfs: PREFIX xsd: PREFIX sch: SELECT (COUNT(?all)   AS ?total) WHERE { { ?all rdf:type sch:Receptionist } UNION { ?all rdf:type sch:Secretary } UNION { ?all rdf:type sch:Switchboard_Operator } . ?all sch:age ?yrs . FILTER (?yrs } There are 2 members of the admin team that have less than 40 years. What members of the admin staff surname begins with W PREFIX rdf: PREFIX owl: PREFIX rdfs: PREFIX xsd: PREFIX sch: SELECT  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   ?all WHERE { { ?all rdf:type sch:Receptionist } UNION { ?all rdf:type sch:Secretary } UNION { ?all rdf:type sch:Switchboard_Operator } . FILTER regex(str(?all),_w,i) } Paula Wilson, Charlie Williams and Jane Wight are the admin members whose surname begins with W. Retrieve all teachers and their qualifications PREFIX rdf: PREFIX owl: PREFIX rdfs: PREFIX xsd: PREFIX sch: SELECT ?teacher ?teaches WHERE { ?teacher rdf:type sch:Teachers . ?teacher sch:IsLecturerOf ?teaches . } Retrieve the name of all subjects taught by the teacher with ID 2341 PREFIX rdf: PREFIX owl: PREFIX rdfs: PREFIX xsd: PREFIX sch: SELECT ?teacher ?id ?subjects WHERE { ?teacher rdf:type sch:Teachers . ?teacher sch:ID ?id FILTER (?id=2341)  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   . ?teacher sch:IsLecturerOf ?subjects } Albert Tatlock, the teacher with ID 2341, teaches ICT. DBPedia A timetable query. Results in HTML Ontology-Oriented Inference-Based Learning Content Management System Application Semantic web technologies based upon ontology are considered as the promising solution in order to provide an explicit definition of the shared conceptualisation regarding certain domain as well as acknowledging assemblage of e-learning contents. Ontologies integrated with profiles of the learner integrate to provide enhanced results within an e-learning LMS system. It could be used in contrast with multi-agent technologies in order to derive personalised learning paths (Stevenson, 2015).   The domain of courses can be easily managed by ontology and provide explicit details of education establishment as well as adaptation of students learning paths. General Concepts of LCMS LMS is regarded as the software package, usually applied on the large scale that enables the delivery of learning resources and courses and management to students. Most of the LMS systems are web-based in order to facilitate anywhere, anytime access to administration and learning content. LMS is referred to as the reporting systems and do not include ways to develop new content or to deliver small learning packets (Icoza, 2015). LMS is fashioned for tracking test results, registration, class lists, grades, managing all learning events within the academics institute and class scheduling. In contrast, the LCMs focus upon the learning content. It provides authors, subject matter experts, and instructional designers to means to develop e-learning content in a more effective way. The core concern that is resolved by LCMs is to develop sufficient content just in time to meet the requirements of the learners group or individual learners (Kuhn, 2012). Instructional designers develop chunks of reusable content rather than entire courses and acclimatising to multiple audiences, and make them available to the course developers all through the academic institute. Sequence Diagram The sequence of steps is performed on the retrieve and query as mentioned in the figure below. The flow proceeds as follows: The user search for certain information after the registration to system Then, the semantic-based LMS check the validation of the query The system informs him about, if there is any error in request sending or if the query is invalid If the query is valid, then the system gets the query at repository data as well as user history repository, and sees there is any existing data (Kuhn, 2012). The system notifies him about the existence of data, if the data exists, then data is retrieved by the system makes an inference to that of fetching data by deploying the rules of validation It saves the result of inference to the repository and includes the outcomes to the original retrieved data and responses to the operator. Figure: Sequence Diagram Fundamental   Ontologies The system is based on the ontological framework to allow formal demonstration of learning content along with its principle building blocks such as; different types of learning activities, learning content, participants within the process of learning i.e. teaching assistants, teachers, learners, etc. (Ferraram, 2013). The ontology domains defined can be salvaged by other ontologies, therefore assimilating various contemporary technologies under single ontology illustrating a large domain. Describing Classes Three primary classes will be defined i.e. users, institutions, and learning resources. The institution class is further divided into colleges. The learning resource class incorporates a list of overall courses as its user class and subclasses consists of a list of every type of users i.e. instructor, student, and administrator (Jain, 2013).   The overall classes are sub classed under one class that exemplifies overall classes root. Outlining Properties Figure: Object Properties Figure: Datatype Properties The ontology of the learning resources is the core of this framework has been demonstrated in the graph illustrated below using the OntoGraft (Kholief, 2012). It consists of a number of properties and classes aimed at formally signifying learning content. The ontologies have been divided into two segments; information of learning course and learning content information. The class courses is the one that has been opted by more than one learner while interrelating with customers. The other class consists of the course content such as; lab experience, PowerPoint lectures, notes, and media. Moreover, the courses are also divided into the subclasses. Class course specifications incorporate the information regarding the field, term, and the course type. In addition, class course enrolment includes information regarding the enrolment of students on certain course (Icoza, 2015). The ontology signifies characteristics to the overall procures of E-learning i.e. Preferences and basic personal data along with the speciation of the features of leaner-specific, including multiple dimensions of learning styles and performance. Figure: Projected Learning Resource Ontology Class Diagram A class diagram is the UML structure diagram that illustrates the structure of designed system by exemplifying the classes in the system, constraints, relationships, their features, amongst the classes.  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   Moreover, the active entities of the anticipated systems include; courses, students, course administrator, and course content. The entities of the business domain include; test, enrolment, course evaluation, and course specification (Kuhn, 2012). The class diagram of the projected system has been illustrated in the below mentioned figure. Figure: Class diagram of Learning Resources ontology Logical Rules The above mentioned rules demonstrate the semantic probing of course content upon the system. The explanation of the rules is mentioned below. rules 1; the privilege of the learner to course content ie enrollment rules 2; pre-request courses of various courses (Ferraram, 2013). rule 3; topic of certain contents such as; authentication lectures of course database is linked to security of topic too Related Work The research will incorporate the approaches of e-learning content management along with the semantic approach that is associated with the represented work. The review has enhanced the e-learning environments with that of the semantic-rich cognisance information. It has intended the educators to utilise this information when updating learning content for future courses. Therefore, heuristics have been developed that allow both; the convergence of LCMS log data and the intelligent analysis into the ontologies of the Semantic web. ILMSs (Intelligent LMSs) have linked the modern approach to the web-based education is dependent upon the LMSs, but under adaptive hypermedia and intelligent tutoring technologies (Kholief, 2012). As the generation of the new Web, the Semantic web has improved conditions for reusing and composing the learning materials. The research has been aimed to develop a simple, learner-oriented, and customised e-learning system as well as to create the material of particular course conforming SCORM. The research emphases upon the development of an ontology of student model that is appropriate with the needs of learning procedures in the faculty of computer science. The oncology has, moreover, incorporated the knowledge regarding student learning styles, student data, as well as the performance of the students (Jain, 2013). The research is based upon the approach, identifying such of those learning objects that amalgamate information technology and educational pedagogy via instructional design. Brief Phenomenon of Ontologies The term Ontology comes from the world of philosophy is the part of metaphysics that deals with being in general and of their transcendental properties, or properties that transcend the limits of the merely experimental (Wanner et al, 2015).   This concept has been adopted by computer science, specifically in the domain of artificial intelligence, adapting it to their needs, and using a metaphor according to which the experimental, physical, tangible, objective and recordable would be the data, and the metaphysical, inedible, subjective would be informative. More rigorously, this metaphorical adoption has given rise to a wide variety of definitions of this new concept, a product of the points of view of diverse authors and, fundamentally, of the different ways of constructing and using ontologies as computer systems (Brizzi et al, 2016). Among the most well-known and used definitions is that states that that an ontology constitutes an explicit and formal specification of menta l abstractions, which are shaped by an agreement of the expert community in a domain and in a design for a specific purpose this definition implies a multitude of aspects that contribute to clarify this concept. Therefore, when analysed in detail, it is ontology provides the structure for a vocabulary controlled in a way similar to a dictionary or a thesaurus. This vocabulary, agreed by the community, is expressed through concepts, thus conforming the abstractions (Johnson, 2016). On the other hand, in terms of the formal specification of a vocabulary, this could be in various forms, such as a flat list of words, a dictionary, a taxonomy, an entity-relationship diagram, a Unified Mark-up Language (UML) model, an XML schema and many other possible ones (Goodchild, 2013). However, the ontologies are much more than described so far and to give a small sample that its possibilities are not confined and trying to clarify and deepen especially, it has resorted to the definition of Neches and employees. It has been argued that ontology defines the vocabulary of an area through a set of basic terms and relations between these terms, as well as such, as rules that combine terms and relationships that extend given definitions in the vocabulary (Kuhn, 2012). This assumes that the ontologies are not formed only by mere concepts with a certain organisation, which would not be much more distant of a thesaurus, but also relations, rules, and axioms are given between concepts that enrich and contribute to expanding the vocabulary of the work domain. In order to clarify, with a concrete case, what is ontology is included below an example regarding possible travel ontology (Stocker et al, 2014). Within it would be all the relevant concepts related to the subject in question, among others: travel, flight, the client, lodging, road, departure, arrival, rate, etc. In this ontology, everything would start from the key concept, trip. Of the same, the different types of trips that a person can perform (flight, train, bus, by boat, etc.). Also, it is the fact that every trip has a single date, time and place of departure and a single date, time and place of arrival, a company and a tariff, concepts all that would be part of the ontology (Whitehead et al, 2013). Once all the basic concepts have been defined, the relations between them, for example, a trip of a certain type with a place of departure and another one of arrival corresponds a determined duration. Another possible relationship would be formed by the place of the concept of departure, place of arrival, and itinerary by road, and that a certain sequence of roads connects two different places. The complexity and variety of relationships can become as can imagine since the multiplicity of relationships can achieve a system much more powerful and effective. Thus, a city of origin may have as points of departure a particular bus station, a train station or an airport (Jain, 2013). Different points of departure that will be depending on the chosen destination or on other issues such as schedules or economic ailments, among others. With this complexity of criteria, intelligence implemented in the system this will be able to guide to the most suitable station or airport, at a certain time and with the relevant transhipments. In this way, the efficiency can be management process of any trip, greatly facilitating the whole process (Ferraram, 2013). Another important element that is part of the ontologies are the axioms (logical expressions), which serve to define meaningful constraints of the type such as, is not possible to travel from the USA to Europe by train or it is not poss ible to travel by boat between Madrid and Barcelona. In addition to it, this small ontology could be implemented on an Information System (GIS), helping to manage all this information in a more efficient and autonomous, because it will allow the user to know what type of transport takes you from one city to another, days and times of departure and arrival, fares, durations, accommodation, etc., all in a smart and automated way. Without forgetting that the information to be obtained can be as much or more complex as it goes bringing greater

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Gender Differences and Identities Essay -- Gender Sex Boys Girls Compa

Gender Differences and Identities   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  While physical characteristics may clearly define one’s gender, race, or even social status, it is often one significant moment in one’s life when their gender is truly decided. The first five years of my life consisted of my younger sister and I imitating our mother, playing with dolls, and dressing each other up. As my sister was the main person that I played with, gender never really crossed my mind. Even when I started preschool and kindergarten, boys were not boys to me; they were simply new friends and more people to play with. At that moment in my life, I was just Jackie Goldsmith, I stood in the â€Å"girls’ lines† at school, and wore pink dresses and ribbons in my hair to church on Sunday.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Looking back now, I can specifically remember when this so-called reality I had as a young child, changed drastically. It all happened when I was six years old; my little brother was born. I didn’t realize the difference until he was almost a year old, but his birth, my mom having a boy instead of a girl, definitely helped form who I am today. His birth was ultimately the alter of my whole reality as I had previously known it. There are plenty moments that I can look back on during this time, and realize how each aided in forcing my gender upon me. My parent’s followed many of the social norms when it comes to boys and girls. Even at age six I noticed that they dressed my brother differently than they did when my younger sister and I were his age. I even noticed that they had a different tone of voice when they spoke to him; it was nothing at all like the little baby voice that I remembered them using when my little sister was a few months old. You k now, the voice that we as toddlers would normally get in trouble for using because we weren’t babies anymore. While I could pick out all of these little differences, I wasn’t exactly sure why they were the way they were until a few months later. One evening, around the time in my brothers life when he had finally learned to walk, a few relatives were over visiting and just having a good time. My parents and relatives were talking and admiring my baby brother Mike, and my sister and I played with dolls in the corner. As they were talking, I remember my Uncle saying something like, â€Å"He’s getting big, you think he will grow up and be a football player like we use to be?† I ... ...tivities that I chose to do, I slowly began to fall into place, on my own. I believe that its very important for parents to be open minded when it comes to gender. Looking back at my own situation, my parents followed the norms in the beginning and forced me into a realization that I wasn’t ready for. Therefore, as a young child, I did the only thing I could and rebelled. However, as they began to change and let me make my own decisions I got right back on track. I grew into a woman, and the previous experience helped me become my own person. Because of my father, I was determined to be my own individual, an independent and powerful woman. That was my number one priority growing up and I contribute a lot of my later success to that previous attitude. Growing up a female has been quite an experience. While in my younger years I felt as if my gender was somewhat pre-determined for me, I soon fell into the natural groove of being a female. I am not only comfortable in my own skin now, but I am proud to be a woman. My family is very supportive of all my decisions regardless of gender and they make me feel that I have the ability and power to do anything.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  

Monday, August 19, 2019

Chaucers Canterbury Tales :: essays research papers fc

The Canterbury Tales is a great assortment of stories written by Geoffrey Chaucer. Each individual story is told by a pilgrim from the voyage to Canterbury. â€Å"The Prioress’ Tale† was a Miracle of the Virgin story, told by the Prioress. Another tale is â€Å"The Nun’s Priest’s Tale† which is a Beast Fable. Then there is â€Å"The Pardoner’s Tale†, which is an Exemplum. The genres of The Canterbury Tales help shape the entire story.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In â€Å"The Prioress’ Tale†, the Virgin Mary, Mother of Jesus, miraculously aids a follower in the time of need, which is also known as a Miracle of the Virgin tale. A few quotes from the tale support this, one is the following: â€Å"Where he lay face upright with throat slit, began to sing ‘Alma Redemptoris’ so loud, that all the place began to ring† (Chaucer 291). The little boy’s throat had been slit, but since the Virgin Mary had placed the grain on his tongue, he was still able to sing until the grain was taken away. Since the story shows the miracles that can happen when a follower is in the time of need, and how the Virgin Mary guides the follower, it proves that â€Å"The Prioress’ Tale† is a Miracle of the Virgin.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  An Allegory â€Å"is the representation of ideas or moral principles by means of symbolic characters, events, or objects† (Stein 150). The little boy in the story is compared to Jesus, the son of the Virgin Mary. Throughout â€Å"The Prioress’ Tale,† she tells of the Jews and uses a allegory, and compares Jesus’ death to the little boy’s. â€Å"My throat is cut to my neck-bone,† said this child, â€Å"and according to nature, I should have died, yes, a long while ago; But Jesus Christ, as you find in books, wills that His glory endure and be remembered; and, for the majesty of His Mother dear, yet may I sing ‘o Alma’ loud and clear† (Chaucer 294).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"The Nun’s Priest’s Tale† is a Beast Fable, or when â€Å"animals are given human qualities and are involved in clever tales that preach a moral lesson† (The Center for Learning 31). In the tale, Chanticleer is a rooster who is given human characteristics. He talks throughout the story, showing his human like features. â€Å"Here men may see that dreams are to be feared† (Chaucer 316). The entire tale tells the story of Chanticleer and his seven wives.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

The Link Between Heart Disease and Cancer :: Exploratory Essays Research Papers

The Link Between Heart Disease and Cancer Recently, on a visit to my mothers' house, I pulled out my parents' wedding album. As I flipped through the pages of the wedding album, it was exciting to see pictures of my parents and our family members. Everyone seemed to be joyous except my grandmothers. They both had sad and angry expressions on their faces as their children made their vows to each other. I, too, was saddened as I noticed my paternal grandmother's figure because one of her breasts was wider, flatter and higher than her other breast. It appears that she had attempted to fill her bra cup with some type of soft cloth. I did not know that she had succumbed to breast cancer and had a radical mastectomy so early in her life. Although my maternal grandmother is still alive today, she has had advanced heart disease most of her life. We called my grandmother "GM" (grandmother). Although GM is a kind and gentle woman, she is quite temperamental. I believe these emotions and worry spike her towering blood pressure. As I continued to go through my parents' wedding album, I noticed that mostly everyone in my family has died of heart disease or cancer. Although my father had diabetes, he died of a massive heart attack. My great uncle died of prostate cancer and his wife died after having a massive heart attack. According to the 1995 Monthly Vital Statistics Report, heart disease and cancer are the leading causes of death in the United States; in fact, heart disease and cancer have been linked to diet and exercise. "I believe that 80 and 90 percent of cancers can be prevented because they are caused by environmental, dietary or nutritional factors," according to Dan Colbert, M.D. and author of Walking in Divine Health. The most common cancers in the United States-- colorectal cancer and breast cancer and prostate cancer--are linked to consumption of red meat, fats, and toxins in diet. In Leviticus 3:17, it is written, "This shall be a perpetual statue through out your generations in all your dwellings: you shall eat neither fat nor blood" (The New King James Bible).

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Development Of Electrocoagulation System Using Cfd Environmental Sciences Essay

Oil – H2O emulsions occur in many phases during oil production. The chief undertaking in seaward oil and gas production is to divide the gas, oil and H2O stages and to handle the single stages in order to run into the merchandise specifications. Separating H2O from uninterrupted flows of oil is normally required in oil production applications, oil refineries and chemical workss every bit good as some topographic points where it is indispensable that the hydrocarbons non be contaminated with H2O. The possible jobs with H2O taint were first emphasized during the last portion of World War II when it was found that aeroplanes could wing high plenty to do the H2O to stop dead in the fuel lines. The pilots found this unreasonably inconvenient because it caused the engines to halt, so equipment was designed to guarantee that merely bantam sums of H2O were allowed to stay in the air power fuel. A mixture of oil and H2O called as an emulsion ; an emulsion is a mechanical mixture, non a solution, dwelling of droplets of one non-miscible fluid dispersed in another uninterrupted fluid. In the instance of H2O and oil, two types of emulsion are common, depending on which is the uninterrupted stage. 1. Oil in H2O emulsions. 2. Water in oil emulsions Oil and H2O may comparatively conveniently separate utilizing gravitation and assorted enhanced gravitation systems. In the instance of taking oil from H2O, droplets of oil rise within the H2O and in taking H2O from oil, H2O droplets fall within the oil.In instances where the uninterrupted stage is oil ; it may be advisable to use extra force to assist coerce the H2O to divide. In electrostatic desalters and negotiators, an electrical field is applied and in blending cartridge centrifuges the usage of tightly packed fibre beds are used.Aims:In general, this undertaking is intended to carry through the undermentioned aims: To make an electrocoagulation system to be used to cut down the H2O content of the petroleum oil. To Design and Simulate the electrocoagulation system utilizing Computational Fluid Dynamic ( CFD ) application. To measure the functionality of the developed electrocoagulation system in footings of efficiency and functionality.LITERATURE REVIEWDefinition of Electrocoagulation:Definition of electrocoagulation from exford dictionary Electrocoagulation ( EC ) as an electrochemical method was developed to get the better of the drawbacks of conventional H2O and effluent intervention engineerings. In EC, aluminium or Fe hydrated oxide flocs which destabilize and aggregate the suspended atoms or precipitates and absorb dissolved contaminations are produced by anodal disintegration followed by hydrolysis. Electrocoagulation uses an electrical current in an electrochemical cell to clot contaminations in effluent. EC is good suited to handling effluent with the undermentioned contaminations: emulsified oils, PAHs, ill settling solids, ill soluble organics, contaminations in general that add turbidness to H2O, every bit good as negatively charged metal species such as arsenic, Mo, and phosphate. Electrocoagulation ( EC ) , besides known as Radio Frequency Diathermy or Short Wave Electrolysis, is a technique used for wash H2O intervention, effluent intervention, industrial processed H2O, and medical intervention. Electricity-based electrocoagulation engineering removes contaminations that are impossible to be removed by filtration or chemical intervention systems, such as emulsified oil, entire crude oil hydrocarbons, suspended solids, and heavy metals. A to the full automated modular system has no filters to clean or replace and does non necessitate the usage of chemicals.Theory of Electrocoagulation:2.2.1 What is the procedure all about?Electrocoagulation ( EC ) procedure has been attracted a great attending in handling industrial effluents because of the versatility and environmental compatibility. This technique has some advantages when compared to conventional methods such as simple equipment, easy to run, less keeping clip, decrease or absence of adding chemicals, rapid deposit of the electrogenerated flocs and less sludge production. Therefore, it was shown that EC could be used as an effectual and dependable method for cut downing or taking a big assortment of pollutants in effluents ( Kobya et al. , 2006 ) . Aluminum or Fe is normally used as electrodes and their cations are generated by disintegration of sacrificial anodes upon the application of a direct current. The metal ions generated are hydrolyzed in the electrochemical cell to bring forth metal hydrated oxide ions harmonizing to reactions ( 1 ) , ( 2 ) and ( 3 ) and the solubility of the metal hydrated oxide composite formed depends on pH and ionic strength. Insoluble flocs are generated at pH scope between 6.0 and 7.0 as can be seen from the solubility diagram of aluminium hydrated oxide Al ( OH ) 3 ( s ) demoing pH versus solubility ( Bensadok et al. , in imperativeness ) . Metal species react with negatively charged atoms in the H2O to organize flocs. The in situ coevals of coagulators means that electrocoagulation procedures do non necessitate the add-on of any chemicals. The gases produced at the cathode during the electrolysis of H2O and metal disintegration as seen in Eqs. ( 1 ) , ( 2 ) and ( 3 ) let the ensuing flocs to d rift ( Daneshvar et al. , 2006 ) . View the MathML beginning ( 1 ) View the MathML beginning ( 2 ) View the MathML beginning ( 3 ) The electrocoagulation has successfully been used for the intervention of effluents including dairy effluent ( Azengil and A-zacar, 2006 ) , alcohol distillery effluent ( Yavuz, 2007 ) and textile effluent ( Ogutveren, 1992 and Can et al. , 2006 ) . Meanwhile, EC procedure has been widely used to handle effluent which has high measure of oil-grease, COD and toxic such as olive oil factory effluent ( Tezcan Un et al. , 2006, Adhoum and Monser, 2004 and Khoufi et al. , 2007 ) . Treatment of oil refinery effluent was studied by Rajkumar and Palanivelu ( 2004 ) at a fixed current denseness utilizing Ti/TiO2-RuO2-IrO2 electrode and an undivided reactor with add-on of chloride while the initial COD value of 602 milligrams La?’1 was reduced to 152 milligrams La?’1 with an energy ingestion of 235.3 kWh/kg after 20 Ah/L of charge input. In this survey, treatability of VORW to legal discharge demands at assorted runing conditions by electrocoagulation utilizing aluminium electrode with add-on of Na2SO4 and PAC ( poly aluminium chloride ) that would be executable and economic in usage for little and mid size installations was investigated. Electro-coagulation is an electrochemical procedure that combines the consequence of: 1. ) electrolysis gases, that is hydrogen and O 2. ) production of polyvalent cations from corrodible anodes, e.g. Fe During the electrolysis procedure, metal cations signifier and react with hydroxide ions in cathode to organize metal hydrated oxides. In the instance of Fe electrodes, there are two feasible mechanisms for the production of the metal hydrated oxide: In acidic medium, Anode: Fe ( s ) a† Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ Fe2+ ( aq ) + 2e- 4Fe2+ ( aq ) + 10 H2O ( cubic decimeter ) + O2 ( g ) a† Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ 4 Fe ( OH ) 3 ( s ) + 8H+ ( aq ) Cathode: 2H+ ( aq ) + 2e- a† Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ H2 ( g ) Overall: 4 Fe ( s ) + 10 H2O ( cubic decimeter ) + O2 ( g ) a† Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ 4Fe ( OH ) 2 ( s ) + 4H2 ( g ) In alkalic medium, Anode: Fe ( s ) a† Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ Fe2+ ( aq ) + 2e- Fe2+ ( aq ) + 2OH- ( aq ) a† Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ Fe ( OH ) 2 ( s ) Cathode: 2H2O ( cubic decimeter ) + 2e- a† Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ H2 ( g ) + 2OH- ( aq ) Overall: Fe ( s ) + 2H2O ( cubic decimeter ) a† Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ Fe ( OH ) 2 ( s ) + H2 ( g ) Once the Fe hydrated oxide is produced, it removes pollutants by surface complexation and electrostatic attractive force. The pollutants presumptively act as a ligand to adhere with an Fe ion. Furthermore, the Fe hydrated oxide formed during reaction contains evident positive and negative charges which attract face-to-face charged polluting species and take them from the solution. ( EC ) . Electrocoagulation is initiated by the oxidization of sacrificial anodes out of aluminum or Fe giving up, severally Al3+ and Fe2+ ions. The latter ions are quickly oxidized to Fe3+ by air oxidization. The metal ions combine to the hydroxyl ions produced by the H2O electrolysis at the cathode, to organize the corresponding metal hydrated oxides, which favor the formation of the flocs by destabilization of the contaminations or particulate suspensions. The flocs formed can be recovered from the liquid surface by grating – when the bubbles of H produced at the cathode allow floatation – or settle depending on their denseness. Electrocoagulation is a procedure consisting of making a floc of metallic hydrated oxides within the wastewater to be treated by electrodissolution of a soluble anode. The coagulator in this technique is mentioned in situ by disintegration of a sacrificial anode and it involves three chief procedures [ 13 ] and [ 14 ] : electrolytic reaction at electrode surface, formation of coagulators by electrolytic oxidization in aqueous stage and surface assimilation of colloidal atoms on coagulator, and remotion by deposit or floatation. Therefore, the appropriate choice of the electrode stuffs is really of import. The most common used stuffs for electrocoagulation are aluminum or Fe. They are inexpensive, readily available. However, aluminum was found to be a more appropriate electrode stuff harmonizing to the Fe electrode public presentation [ 15 ] . The electrochemical reactions with aluminum as anode may be summarized as follows: At the anode: M ( s ) a† Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ M3+ ( aq ) + 3ea?’ ( 1 ) ( 2 ) View the MathML beginning In the solution: M3+ ( aq ) + 3H2O a† Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ M ( OH3 ) ( s ) + 3H+ ( aq ) ( 3 ) M3+ ( aq ) and OHa?’ ions generated by the electrode reactions ( 1 ) and ( 2 ) react, severally, to organize assorted monomeric species, depending on pH scope, which transform eventually into M ( OH ) 3 harmonizing to complex precipitation dynamicss. Freshly formed formless M ( OH ) 3 ( sweep flocs ) with big surface countries which are good for a rapid surface assimilation of soluble organic compounds and caparison of colloidal atoms. Consequently, these flocs can be removed by deposit or by floatation utilizing H2 bubbles produced at the cathode [ 16 ] . Optimizing the electrocoagulation procedure implies finding of the experimental conditions for separation of oil from oil-in-water emulsion. In the preliminary survey, the job can be defined as destabilising the emulsion by destructing the interfacial movie and get the better ofing the repulsive force effects of the electrical dual bed to let the eventually sized oil droplets to organize larger droplets through coalescency. In the 2nd phase, the optimum operating conditions will be applied and the research will concern the optimum operational parametric quantities aimed to divide oil utilizing the electrochemical method. While the aim is to measure one or more factors that have an unquestionable consequence on the procedure separation. In conventional multifactor experiments, optimisation is normally carried out by changing a individual factor while maintaining all other factors fixed at a specific set of conditions. It is non merely time-consuming, but besides normally incapable of making the true optimum due to disregarding the interactions among variables. Therefore, it is desirable to develop an acceptable procedure in shortest possible clip utilizing minimal figure of work forces, hours and natural stuffs. In add-on, the technique of the experimental design is an efficient method of bespeaking the comparative significance of a figure of variables and their interactions [ 17 ] . For this intent, response surface method ( RSM ) was proposed to find the influences of single factors and their synergistic influences. RSM is a statistical technique for planing experiments, edifice theoretical accounts, measuring the effects of several factors, and seeking optimal conditions for desirable responses [ 18 ] . The chief advantage of this method of other statistical experimental design methods is the decreased figure of experiments tests needed to measure multiple parametric quantities and their interactions [ 19 ] . Recently, this method has been used to find optima l parametric quantities in different procedures [ 20 ] and [ 21 ] . Electrocoagulation is the procedure of destabilising suspended, emulsified, or dissolved contaminations in an aqueous medium by presenting an electric current into the medium. In its simplest signifier, an electrocoagulation reactor may be made up of an electrolytic cell with one anode and one cathode. The conductive metal home bases are normally known as ‘sacrificial electrodes ‘ and may be made of the same or different stuffs ( anode and cathode ) ( Mollah et al. , 2001 ) . Electrocoagulation is the electrochemical production of destabilization agents ( such as Al, Fe ) that brings about neutralization of electric charge for taking pollutant. Once charged, the atoms bond together like little magnets to organize a mass. This procedure has proven really effectual in taking contaminations from H2O and is characterised by decreased sludge production, no demand for chemical usage, and easiness of operation ( Rajeshwar and Ibanez, 1997 ) . Colloid – destabilizing agent s that consequence on-charge neutralization are produced by electrolysis in the EC procedure. For illustration, aluminum anodes are used to bring forth aluminum cations which have the same consequence as the add-on of Al-based coagulators in conventional intervention systems.2.2.2 How effectual is electrocoagulation:There were n't many siecntific documents discoursing the application of electrocoagulation in taking H2O in petroleum oil, nevertheless many surveies have discussed the effictiveness of electrocoagulation procedure in effluent interventions every bit good as in interrupting oil H2O emulsion. Which has been practiced in these industries for old ages. Therefore these informations will be analysed in our literature reappraisal, and it will be the sicientific princibles in which we base our research on with careful scrutiny of the parametric quantities in them. The scientific publication below will discus the followers: why electrocoagulation is needed and better than conventional methods in separation or emulsion breakage: the consequences and findings in these publication that evaluate the effectivity of the electrocoagulation system the parametric quantities that affect these consequences2.2.3 why electrocoagulation is needed and better than conventional methods in separation or emulsion breakage?Electrocoagulation ( EC ) procedure has been attracted a great attending in handling industrial effluents because of the versatility and environmental compatibility. This technique has some advantages when compared to conventional methods such as simple equipment, easy to run, less keeping clip, decrease or absence of adding chemicals, rapid deposit of the electrogenerated flocs and less sludge production. Therefore, it was shown that EC could be used as an effectual and dependable method for cut downing or taking a big assortment of pollutants in effluents ( Kobya et al. , 2006 ) . In recent old ages, several surveies have focused on electrocoagulation, which is an effectual procedure used to destabilise and take finely spread atoms from Waterss and effluents. These surveies have shown that electrocoagulation is a competitory engineering for the remotion of pollutants from supply H2O [ 1 ] , [ 2 ] and [ 3 ] , urban effluents [ 4 ] and besides in the intervention of existent and man-made industrial wastewaters [ 5 ] and [ 6 ] such as those generated in the agro-alimentary [ 7 ] , [ 8 ] and [ 9 ] , metalworking [ 10 ] and fabric industries [ 11 ] , [ 12 ] and [ 13 ] .The advantages reported for this engineering, as compared to the conventional curdling procedure ( add-on of coagulator by solution dosing ) , are the simpleness of the equipment required, versatility, safety and easy mechanization of the procedure [ 14 ] , [ 15 ] , [ 16 ] and [ 17 ] as this attack does non necessitate the add-on of any chemicals. The procedure consequences in high-energy efficiency, selectivity and cost effectivity, every bit good as a reduced sum of precipitate or sludge, which sediments quickly [ 18 ] . In add-on, the low current demand allows such procedures to be run by green energy beginnings such as solar power, air current Millss and fuel cells [ 17 ] . The consequences obtained allow us to sort this technique as one of the most promising methods for handling effluent watercourses polluted with colloids and colorants or dwelling of oil-in-water emulsions. The development of EC procedure has been hindered for old ages by the high investing costs and terrible competition with the chemical processes. It started to recover importance with betterment of electrochemical procedures and announcement of more rigorous environmental statute laws on effluent. This new rise of electrocoagulation has besides been due to the comparative decrease in the operation and investing costs. EC has the possible to be competitory with regard to both economical and environmental standards for intervention of effluent and other related H2O direction issues [ 8 ] . This technique has been applied for intervention of Waterss incorporating suspended solids [ 9 ] , oils and lubricating oils [ 10 ] , [ 11 ] , [ 12 ] and [ 13 ] , dyes and fabric effluents [ 14 ] and [ 15 ] , or industrial wastes incorporating heavy metals [ 16 ] and phosphate [ 17 ] . EC was besides applied for defluoridation of H2O [ 18 ] and urban wastewatersMethods of demulsification oil-water emu lsion include chemical, mechanical and lectrochemical techniques [ 1 ] . Chemical curdling is carried out by adding salts such as ferrous sulfate or aluminum sulfate to the emulsion followed by a precipitation reaction. This method generates a high water-content sludge with attendant dewatering and disposal jobs beside the high cost of the coagulating chemicals. Mechanical methods such as ultrafiltration are limited in usage because of the rapid fouling of the membranes used in ultrafiltration [ 1 ] . Electrocoagulation is having an increasing credence by industry in position of its advantages compared to other methods [ 1 ] and [ 2 ] . Several methods have been used for the intervention of theses wastes † agricultural waste â€Å" , such as chemical destabilization by utilizing inorganic salts [ 2 ] , flocculation [ 3 ] , dissolved air floatation [ 4 ] , and membrane procedures [ 5 ] and [ 6 ] . A reappraisal of literature indicated a certain figure of surveies which show the success of the oil separation from greasy rejections by utilizing electroflotation [ 7 ] and [ 8 ] . The chief disadvantage of this method is the restriction of separation efficiency by the oil concentration in the emulsion. To cut down this restriction, other techniques based on the combination of the electroflotation with flocculation were used successfully [ 9 ] . Recently, there is a demand to place new engineerings that achieve technically and economically efficient separation of oil from oil-in-water emulsion. For this intent, electrocoagulation procedure is playing a more outstanding function in the intervention of greasy effluents [ 10 ] , [ 11 ] and [ 12 ] , because it provides some advantages: no chemical additives are added to destabilise the emulsion, simple equipment, easy operation, low capital and operating cost and reduced sum of sludge. Electrocoagulation ( EC ) and electrocoagulation/flotation ( ECF ) processes can be applied to a wide scope of H2O and effluent intervention systems and are most effectual in taking inorganic contaminations and pathogens. Because of their wide pertinence, they have been used for groundwater and surface H2O redress at several sites ( Joffe and Knieper, 2000 ) . These procedures are characterised by easiness of operation, reduced production of sludge, and no demand to manage chemicals. They have been applied expeditiously to assorted H2O intervention jobs. Therefore, if EC can replace conventional chemical curdling, really small alteration is required to do the present intervention workss more efficient and decide the many jobs caused by chemical curdling ( Rajeshwar and Ibanez, 1997 ) . This research presents information refering to the remotion pollutants by electrocoagulation in H2O and effluent.2.3 Computational Fluid Dynamic ( CFD )Fluid flows encountered in mundane life including meteoric phenomena such as rain, air current, hurricanes, inundations, fires every bit good as environmental jeopardies such as air pollution, conveyance of contaminations heating, airing and air conditioning of edifices, and autos. When discuss about fluid flow it does non halt until the fluid but instead widen to the airing form such as burning in car engines and other propulsion systems, interaction of assorted objects with the environing air/water, complex flows in furnaces, heat money changers, chemical reactors etc. it besides affect the procedures in human organic structure blood flow, external respiration, imbibing, and so on and so forth. The importance of CFD is so distinguish that it provides a qualitative and sometimes quantitatve anticipation of fluid flows by agencies of mathematical mold ( partial differential equations ) , numerical methods ( discretization and solution techniques ) and package tools ( convergent thinkers, pre- and postprocessing public-service corp orations ) . It enables scientists and applied scientists to execute ‘numerical experiments ‘ ( i.e. computing machine simulations ) in a ‘virtual flow research lab ‘ .Definition of Computational Fluid Dynamic ( CFD )Computational fluid moral force is the scientific discipline of foretelling fluid flow, heat and mass transportation, chemical reaction and related phenomena by work outing numerically the Lashkar-e-Taiba of regulating mathematical equations. It is besides a preservation of mass, impulse, energy and species.The consequences of CFD analysis are relevant in conceptual surveies of new designs, elaborate merchandise development, problem shot, and redesigning.CFD analysis complements proving and experimentation and reduces the entire attempt required in the experiment design and information acquisition. There are many different definition given to CFD, below are some of the definitions: The art of replacing such Partial Differential Equation ( PDE ) systems by a set of algebra equations which can be solved utilizing digital computing machines ( Kuzmin, D ) Computational fluid kineticss ( CFD ) is an technology method in which flow Fieldss and other natural philosophies are calculated in item for an application of involvement ( hypertext transfer protocol: //, retrieved on 11 July 2011 ) TheA predictionA ofA theA behaviourA ofA fluids andA ofA theA effectsA ofA fluidA motionA pastA objectsA byA numerical methodsA ratherA thanA modelA experiments (, retrieved on 11 July 2011 ) Computational fluid kineticss, normally abbreviated as CFD, is a subdivision of fluid mechanics that uses numerical methods and algorithms to work out and analyse jobs that involve fluid flows. Computers are used to execute the computations required to imitate the interaction of liquids and gases with surfaces defined by boundary conditions. With high-velocity supercomputers, better solutions can be achieved. Ongoing research outputs package that improves the truth and velocity of complex simulation scenarios such as transonic or disruptive flows. Initial proof of such package is performed utilizing a air current tunnel with the concluding proof coming in all-out testing, e.g. flight trials.2.3.2 Background and historythe cardinal footing of about all CFD jobs are the Navier-Stokes equations, which define any single-phase fluid flow. These equations can be simplified by taking footings depicting viscousness to give the Euler equations. Further simplification, by taking footings depic ting vorticity outputs the full possible equations. Finally, for little disturbances in subsonic and supersonic flows ( non transonic or hypersonic ) these equations can be linearized to give the linearized possible equations. Historically, methods were foremost developed to work out the Linearized Potential equations. Planar methods, utilizing conformal transmutations of the flow about a cylinder to the flow about an aerofoil were developed in the 1930s. [ 1 ] The computing machine power available paced development of 3-dimensional methods. The first work utilizing computing machines to pattern fluid flow, as governed by the Navier-Stokes equations, was performed at Los Alamos National Labs, in the T3 group. The group published a paper patterning two dimensional twirling flow around an object in July 1963. This paper used the vorticity watercourse map method, developed by Jake Fromm at LANL. The first paper with 3-dimensional theoretical account was published by John Hess and A.M.O . Smith of Douglas Aircraft in 1967. [ 2 ] This method discretized the surface of the geometry with panels, giving rise to this category of plans being called Panel Methods. Their method itself was simplified, in that it did non include raising flows and hence was chiefly applied to transport hulls and aircraft fuselages. The first lifting Panel Code ( A230 ) was described in a paper written by Paul Rubbert and Gary Saaris of Boeing Aircraft in 1968. [ 3 ] In clip, more advanced 3-dimensional Panel Codes were developed at Boeing ( PANAIR, A502 ) , [ 4 ] Lockheed ( Quadpan ) , [ 5 ] Douglas ( HESS ) , [ 6 ] McDonnell Aircraft ( MACAERO ) , [ 7 ] NASA ( PMARC ) [ 8 ] and Analytical Methods ( WBAERO, [ 9 ] USAERO [ 10 ] and VSAERO [ 11 ] [ 12 ] ) . Some ( PANAIR, HESS and MACAERO ) were higher order codifications, utilizing higher order distributions of surface uniquenesss, while others ( Quadpan, PMARC, USAERO and VSAERO ) used individual uniquenesss on each surface panel. The advanta ge of the lower order codifications was that they ran much faster on the computing machines of the clip. Today, VSAERO has grown to be a multi-order codification and is the most widely used plan of this category. It has been used in the development of many pigboats, surface ships, cars, choppers, aircraft, and more late wind turbines. Its sister codification, USAERO is an unsteady panel method that has besides been used for patterning such things as high velocity trains and rushing yachts. The NASA PMARC codification from an early version of VSAERO and a derived function of PMARC, named CMARC, [ 13 ] is besides commercially available. In the planar kingdom, a figure of Panel Codes have been developed for aerofoil analysis and design. The codifications typically have a boundary bed analysis included, so that syrupy effects can be modeled. Professor Richard Eppler of the University of Stuttgart developed the PROFILE codification, partially with NASA support, which became available in the early 1980s. [ 14 ] This was shortly followed by MIT Professor Mark Drela ‘s XFOIL codification. [ 15 ] Both PROFILE and XFOIL incorporate planar panel codifications, with coupled boundary bed codifications for aerofoil analysis work. PROFILE uses a conformal transmutation method for reverse aerofoil design, while XFOIL has both a conformal transmutation and an reverse panel method for aerofoil design. An intermediate measure between Panel Codes and Full Potential codifications were codifications that used the Transonic Small Disturbance equations. In peculiar, the 3-dimensional WIBCO codification, [ 16 ] developed by Charlie Boppe of Grumman Aircraft in the early 1980s has seen heavy usage. Developers turned to Full Potential codifications, as panel methods could non cipher the non-linear flow nowadays at transonic velocities. The first description of a agency of utilizing the Full Potential equations was published by Earll Murman and Julian Cole of Boeing in 1970. [ 17 ] French republics Bauer, Paul Garabedian and David Korn of the Courant Institute at New York University ( NYU ) wrote a series of planar Full Potential aerofoil codifications that were widely used, the most of import being named Program H. [ 18 ] A farther growing of Program H was developed by Bob Melnik and his group at Grumman Aerospace as Grumfoil. [ 19 ] Antony Jameson, originally at Grumman Aircraft and the Courant Institute of NYU, worked with David Caughey to develop the of import 3-dimensional Full Potential codification FLO22 [ 20 ] in 1975. Many Full Potential codifications emerged after this, climaxing in Boeing ‘s Tranair ( A633 ) codification, [ 21 ] which still sees heavy usage. The following measure was the Euler equations, which promised to supply more accurate solutions of transonic flows. The methodological analysis used by Jameson in his 3-dimensional FLO57 codification [ 22 ] ( 1981 ) was used by others to bring forth such plans as Lockheed ‘s TEAM plan [ 23 ] and IAI/Analytical Methods ‘ MGAERO plan. [ 24 ] MGAERO is alone in being a structured Cartesian mesh codification, while most other such codifications use structured body-fitted grids ( with the exclusion of NASA ‘s extremely successful CART3D codification, [ 25 ] Lockheed ‘s SPLITFLOW codification [ 26 ] and Georgia Tech ‘s NASCART-GT ) . [ 27 ] Antony Jameson besides developed the 3-dimensional AIRPLANE codification [ 28 ] which made usage of unstructured tetrahedral grids. In the planar kingdom, Mark Drela and Michael Giles, so alumnus pupils at MIT, developed the ISES Euler plan [ 29 ] ( really a suite of plans ) for aerofoil design and analysis. This codification foremost became available in 1986 and has been farther developed to plan, analyze and optimise individual or multi-element aerofoils, as the MSES plan. [ 30 ] MSES sees broad usage throughout the universe. A derivative of MSES, for the design and analysis of aerofoils in a cascade, is MISES, [ 31 ] developed by Harold â€Å" Guppy † Youngren while he was a graduate pupil at MIT.The Navier-Stokes equations were the ultimate mark of developers. Planar codifications, such as NASA Ames ‘ ARC2D codification foremost emerged. A figure of 3-dimensional codifications were developed ( ARC3D, OVERFLOW, CFL3D are three successful NASA parts ) , taking to legion commercial bundles.2.3.3 Application of Computational Fluid Dynamic ( CFD )CFD is used to imitate some of difficult to double expe rimental status or to look into some of difficult to mensurate variables ( Allied env. Tech, 2000 ) . It is besides used to depict the equipment public presentation and work out to give information such as temperature, speed profiles and equipment size ( Allied env. Tech, 2000 ) . CFD is besides known in optimising the air flow and energy preservation in research lab goons and vented enclosures ( Kolesnikov A, Ryan R & A ; Walters D, 2001 ) . In an technology probe, CFD analysis of temperature, speed and chemical concentration distributions can assist applied scientists to understand the jobs right and supply thoughts for the best declaration ( Park H, 2010 )3.4 The design of Electrostatic DesalterThe electrostatic desalter / negotiator procedure involves the creative activity of a high electromotive force electric field through which the petroleum must flux from the entryway heading below the electrodes to the issue heading in the top of the vas. The little H2O droplets in the petr oleum are coalesced in the electric field into big droplets which fall quickly to the interface degree taking entrained salt and rushing up the settling rate of the H2O stage. In the unit high electromotive force is applied to one of two sets of steel Electrode grids in the vas. These two sets of grids are parallel to the horizontal centre line of the vas. The lower grid ( hot grid ) is located near the halfway line of the vas and is charged with the secondary electromotive force or the transformer ( high electromotive force ) . This grid is suspended from an insulated support frame.8 The upper grid is anchored to the vas wall through the support beam and serves as a land grid. The flow rate determines the needed keeping clip in the electric field. When this rate is increased much beyond the capacity of the unit, the amalgamate droplets can non settle out and some solid atoms and/or H2O may transport over into the merchandise. Desalters and negotiators differ in that desalters normally are provided with extra H2O beyond what is of course entrained in the oil flow and negotiators are non. This is because the basic map of a negotiator is to take the H2O that is present and the basic map of the desalter is to take the salts present by fade outing them in H2O and taking the H2O. The salts are removed because they cause corrosion jobs downstream in the refinery. File: Desalter Diagram.png Figure 2.1: cross sectional position of Electrostatic petroleum oil desolater3.0 METHODOLOGY3.1 How are we traveling to make this undertaking?Gather more information about the procedure Choose the appropriate design Find the geometry that is more approperate to handel the sort of map that we want After make up one's minding that sort of deminsion the simulation procedure will get down by two stairss Using ploy Making geometry First is make up one's minding the demision of the pipe in footings of diameter and hight Decide the type of connexion between the different parts wether we are traveling to see the different parts of the design or loop should handle it as a 1 integrated portion for better consequence Decide what sort of stuff will be our wall The thickness of these walls will besides play a important portion Planing the electric parts of the system Inlet and mercantile establishment of the current The thickness of the electricalplates What sort of stuff we are traveling to utilize for these electric home bases home bases What will be the surface country that we will necessitate for better curdling Using fluent In this subdivision what we have to make is import our design that we purportedly prepared the geometry from ploy Volumes should be checked wether they are positive or non Choosing a proper units of measuring Puting operating conditions Puting the type of stuffs used Identifying fators that wil be iterated to measure the effectivity of the system Desiding wether there should be traveling parts or non. 5-Gathering the consequences and informations for analytical work 6-After analyzing the information gathered from loop decisions shall be drown about the system and parametric quantities used and what consequence they have on the system 7-Strenghths of our design will be highlighted 8-Weaknesses of the system will be identifiable 9-A comparing of the findings and decisions to the aims that were set 10-Recommendation will be set to better the failings in the system design.3.2 How to utilize CFD3.2.1 GambitIn the ploy subdivision, we do two chief things that are: Making geometry bring forthing mesh In usual cases, CFD jobs will hold the job description in which the dimensions of the geometry will be known. After get downing the ploy we build the geometry, the scheme in making so is the â€Å" top-down † solid mold attack in which we construct the geometry by making volumes ( bricks, cylinders, etc. ) and so pull stringsing them through Boolean operations ( unite, subtract, etc. ) . This manner, you can rapidly construct complicated forms without first making the implicit in vertices, borders, and faces. The first measure in covering with ploy is utilizing the graphical user interface as depicted below. hypertext transfer protocol: // Figure 3.1: first measure in covering with ploy Following measure is making a volume. First, utilizing the operation tool tablet as shown above, select the geometry button. After that, click ‘create volume ‘ and so take the volume you want to build whether it is a brick or a cylinder and et cetera. Second, incorporate different volumes utilizing BooleanA Operations in which you can unify two or more volume. Subtract on volume from another, or split volume from another. hypertext transfer protocol: // Figure 3.2: making a volumeA 3.2.2 Manipulate the Display.1. Zoom out from the current position by keeping down the right mouse button in the artworks window and forcing the mouse off from you. 2. Revolve the position around the screen centre by keeping down the right mouse button and traveling the mouse from side to side. 3. Revolve the position in free-form manner by keeping down the left mouse button and traveling the mouse. 4. Translate the show by keeping down the in-between mouse button and traveling the mouse. 5. Divide the artworks window into four quarter-circles by snaping the A SELECT PRESET CONFIGURATION A hypertext transfer protocol: // bid button in theA Global ControlA toolpad. GAMBITA divides the artworks window into four quarter-circles and applies a different orientation to the theoretical account in each of the four quarter-circles. Each position of the artworks window can be manipulated independently. All alterations to the theoretical account appear in all parts of the artworks window, unless you disable one or more quarter-circles. hypertext transfer protocol: // Figure 3.3: GAMBIT GUI-four graphics-window quarter-circles 6. Restore a individual show of the theoretical account. a ) Use the left mouse button to choose the graphics-window â€Å" sash ground tackle † -the little grey box in the centre of the artworks window. B ) Use the mouse to drag the sash ground tackle to the bottom right corner of the artworks window. 7. Restore the front position of the theoretical account by left-clicking theA ORIENT MODELA hypertext transfer protocol: // bid button in theA Global ControlA toolpad. 8. Scale the theoretical account to suit the artworks window by snaping theA FIT TO WINDOWA hypertext transfer protocol: // bid button in theA Global ControlA toolpad.3.2.3 Mesh the Volume1. Make a mesh for the volume. MESHA hypertext transfer protocol: // – & gt ; A VOLUMEA hypertext transfer protocol: // – & gt ; A MESH VOLUMESA hypertext transfer protocol: // This opens theA Mesh VolumesA signifier. hypertext transfer protocol: // a ) A Shift-left-click the volume in the artworks window. GAMBITA will automatically take theA CooperA Scheme TypeA as the engaging tool to be used, and will utilize anA Interval sizeA ofA 1A ( the default ) underA Spacing. B ) ClickA ApplyA at the underside of theA Mesh VolumesA signifier. This accepts the volume you selected as the one to be meshed. It besides accepts the beginning faces ( the faces whose surface meshes are to be swept through the volume to organize volume elements ) that GAMBITA has chosen for theA CooperA engaging strategy and starts the engagement. A position saloon appears at the top of theA GAMBITA GUI to bespeak how much of the engagement is complete. The volume will be meshed as shown in Figure 3.4. hypertext transfer protocol: // Figure 3.4: Meshed volume2.3.4 FluentAnother manner of utilizing it is through Fluent. This is the interface of fluent. Figure 3.5: Fluent This is how you operate Fluent: Import ( graduated table ) the mesh file ( the 1 we will make in ploy ) by snaping the file button and choosing read instance and acquire into the file that you ab initio created from ploy. Click on grid and choice cheque to analyze whether or non the volumes are all in positive values 3. Click define underside and choice units to choose that type of units suited for your theoretical account. 4. Choice physical theoretical accounts in which you can utilize syrupy theoretical account and the types of that theoretical account. 5. Define stuff belongingss based on your job and the stage of that stuff. 6. Prescribe runing conditions puting the force per unit area, denseness, or gravitation of your theoretical account. 7. Prescribe boundary conditions whether they should be fluid or liquid, traveling wall, traveling zone or stationary wall based on your theoretical account. Supply an initial solution before get downing the loop. Set convergent thinker controls and whether or non the graph should be plotted, iterate and proctor solution, the aforethought graph will be as below. Figure 3.6: Fluent operation To acquire a ocular image on what is go oning, make an ISO surface and choose the speed magnitude contorous to acquire an illustration shown below. Figure 3.7: contours of speed magnitude ( m/s )